optic nerve

Summary

Summary: The 2nd cranial nerve. The optic nerve conveys visual information from the retina to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the retinal ganglion cells which sort at the optic chiasm and continue via the optic tracts to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other important targets include the superior colliculi and the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the central nervous system.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Promoting axon regeneration in the adult CNS by modulation of the PTEN/mTOR pathway
    Kevin Kyungsuk Park
    F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, and Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 322:963-6. 2008
  2. ncbi Diffusion tensor imaging detects and differentiates axon and myelin degeneration in mouse optic nerve after retinal ischemia
    Sheng Kwei Song
    Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Neuroimage 20:1714-22. 2003
  3. pmc Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity
    S Hattar
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 2185, USA
    Science 295:1065-70. 2002
  4. pmc Molecular clustering identifies complement and endothelin induction as early events in a mouse model of glaucoma
    Gareth R Howell
    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:1429-44. 2011
  5. ncbi Lens injury stimulates axon regeneration in the mature rat optic nerve
    S Leon
    Department of Neurosurgery, Children s Hospital, Department of Surgery, and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 20:4615-26. 2000
  6. doi Secondary degeneration of the optic nerve following partial transection: the benefits of lomerizine
    Melinda Fitzgerald
    Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia
    Exp Neurol 216:219-30. 2009
  7. pmc Glaucoma: genes, phenotypes, and new directions for therapy
    Bao Jian Fan
    Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:3064-72. 2010
  8. ncbi Revised diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica
    D M Wingerchuk
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA
    Neurology 66:1485-9. 2006
  9. pmc Sustained axon regeneration induced by co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3
    Fang Sun
    F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 480:372-5. 2011
  10. pmc Premise and prediction-how optic nerve head biomechanics underlies the susceptibility and clinical behavior of the aged optic nerve head
    Claude F Burgoyne
    Optic Nerve Head Research Laboratories, Devers Eye Institute, Portland, OR 97232, USA
    J Glaucoma 17:318-28. 2008

Research Grants

  1. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2012
  3. Axonopathy in Glaucoma
    Samuel D Crish; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Role of endothelin receptors in glaucomatous optic neuropathy
    Raghu R Krishnamoorthy; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. New Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Glaucoma
    Andrei Surguchov; Fiscal Year: 2013
  6. Mechanisms of Astrocyte Development
    Teri L Belecky Adams; Fiscal Year: 2010
  7. Optic Nerve Aging and Glaucoma
    Thasarat Vajaranant; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. Novel Mitochondrial Targeted Neuroprotectants for Glaucoma
    Leonard Levin; Fiscal Year: 2009
  9. Astrocyte Development and Reactive Gliosis
    Teri L Belecky-Adams; Fiscal Year: 2012
  10. Experimental Optic Neuritis: Gene Therapy
    John Guy; Fiscal Year: 2011

Detail Information

Publications364 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Promoting axon regeneration in the adult CNS by modulation of the PTEN/mTOR pathway
    Kevin Kyungsuk Park
    F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, and Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 322:963-6. 2008
    ..of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) promotes robust axon regeneration after optic nerve injury...
  2. ncbi Diffusion tensor imaging detects and differentiates axon and myelin degeneration in mouse optic nerve after retinal ischemia
    Sheng Kwei Song
    Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Neuroimage 20:1714-22. 2003
    ..and radial (lambdaperpendicular) diffusivities reflect axon and myelin pathologies, respectively, the optic nerve was examined serially using DTI in a mouse model of retinal ischemia...
  3. pmc Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity
    S Hattar
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 2185, USA
    Science 295:1065-70. 2002
    ..Hence, melanopsin is most likely the visual pigment of phototransducing RGCs that set the circadian clock and initiate other non-image-forming visual functions...
  4. pmc Molecular clustering identifies complement and endothelin induction as early events in a mouse model of glaucoma
    Gareth R Howell
    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:1429-44. 2011
    ..To do this, we used genome-wide expression profiling of optic nerve head and retina and a series of computational methods...
  5. ncbi Lens injury stimulates axon regeneration in the mature rat optic nerve
    S Leon
    Department of Neurosurgery, Children s Hospital, Department of Surgery, and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 20:4615-26. 2000
    In mature mammals, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are unable to regenerate their axons after optic nerve injury, and they soon undergo apoptotic cell death...
  6. doi Secondary degeneration of the optic nerve following partial transection: the benefits of lomerizine
    Melinda Fitzgerald
    Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia
    Exp Neurol 216:219-30. 2009
    ..Partial optic nerve transection is an excellent model in which to unequivocally differentiate events occurring during secondary ..
  7. pmc Glaucoma: genes, phenotypes, and new directions for therapy
    Bao Jian Fan
    Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:3064-72. 2010
    Glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide, is characterized by progressive optic nerve damage, usually associated with intraocular pressure...
  8. ncbi Revised diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica
    D M Wingerchuk
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA
    Neurology 66:1485-9. 2006
    ..However, some patients with otherwise typical NMO have additional symptoms not attributable to optic nerve or spinal cord inflammation or have MS-like brain MRI lesions...
  9. pmc Sustained axon regeneration induced by co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3
    Fang Sun
    F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 480:372-5. 2011
    ..of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) individually promoted significant optic nerve regeneration, such regrowth tapered off around 2 weeks after the crush injury...
  10. pmc Premise and prediction-how optic nerve head biomechanics underlies the susceptibility and clinical behavior of the aged optic nerve head
    Claude F Burgoyne
    Optic Nerve Head Research Laboratories, Devers Eye Institute, Portland, OR 97232, USA
    J Glaucoma 17:318-28. 2008
    We propose that age-related alterations in optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanics underlie the clinical behavior and increased susceptibility of the aged ONH to glaucomatous damage...
  11. ncbi Opa1 deficiency in a mouse model of autosomal dominant optic atrophy impairs mitochondrial morphology, optic nerve structure and visual function
    Vanessa J Davies
    School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 16:1307-18. 2007
    ..Heterozygous mutants show a slow onset of degeneration in the optic nerve electron microscopy...
  12. ncbi A model to study differences between primary and secondary degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in rats by partial optic nerve transection
    Hana Levkovitch-Verbin
    Department of Ophthalmology, Wilmer Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:3388-93. 2003
    To use a rat model of optic nerve injury to differentiate primary and secondary retinal ganglion cell (RGC) injury.
  13. pmc Mitochondrial optic neuropathies - disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies
    Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
    Mitochondrial Research Group, Institute for Ageing and Health, The Medical School, Newcastle University, UK
    Prog Retin Eye Res 30:81-114. 2011
    ..b>Optic nerve degeneration in LHON and DOA is therefore due to disturbed mitochondrial function and a predominantly complex I ..
  14. pmc Intraocular pressure elevation induces mitochondrial fission and triggers OPA1 release in glaucomatous optic nerve
    Won Kyu Ju
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hamilton Glaucoma Center, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037 0946, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:4903-11. 2008
    To determine whether elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) triggers mitochondrial fission and ultrastructural changes and alters optic atrophy type 1 (OPA1) expression and distribution in the optic nerve (ON) of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice.
  15. ncbi Optic nerve diffusion tensor imaging in optic neuritis
    S Anand Trip
    NMR Research Unit, Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 30:498-505. 2006
    ..The optic nerve is an ideal structure for study by DT-MRI but previous clinical studies did not obtain the full diffusion ..
  16. doi Correlation of optic nerve sheath diameter with direct measurement of intracranial pressure
    Heidi Harbison Kimberly
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 15:201-4. 2008
    Measurements of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) using bedside ultrasound (US) have been shown to correlate with clinical and radiologic signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (ICP).
  17. ncbi Inherited glaucoma in DBA/2J mice: pertinent disease features for studying the neurodegeneration
    Richard T Libby
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA
    Vis Neurosci 22:637-48. 2005
    The glaucomas are neurodegenerative diseases involving death of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve head excavation. A major risk factor for this neurodegeneration is a harmfully elevated intraocular pressure (IOP)...
  18. doi Determinants of quantitative optic nerve measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a population-based sample of non-glaucomatous subjects
    Carol Y Cheung
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:9629-35. 2011
    To evaluate the ocular and systemic factors influencing measurements of optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in healthy Chinese adults.
  19. doi Ultrasonography of the optic nerve in neurocritically ill patients
    R Moretti
    Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Ospedale SS Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo, Alessandria, Italy
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 55:644-52. 2011
    ..The optic nerve is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and dura mater, which forms the optic nerve sheath (ONS)...
  20. pmc Prevalence of raised intracranial pressure in cerebral malaria detected by optic nerve sheath ultrasound
    Nicholas A V Beare
    St Paul s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 87:985-8. 2012
    We aimed to use optic nerve sheath (ONS) ultrasound to determine the prevalence of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in African children with cerebral malaria (CM); and if increased ONS diameter is associated with poor outcome...
  21. pmc Full-length axon regeneration in the adult mouse optic nerve and partial recovery of simple visual behaviors
    Silmara de Lima
    Laboratory for Neuroscience Research in Neurosurgery and F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:9149-54. 2012
    The mature optic nerve cannot regenerate when injured, leaving victims of traumatic nerve damage or diseases such as glaucoma with irreversible visual losses...
  22. doi Upregulation of reggie-1/flotillin-2 promotes axon regeneration in the rat optic nerve in vivo and neurite growth in vitro
    Jan C Koch
    Department of Neurology, University Medicine Gottingen, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Neurobiol Dis 51:168-76. 2013
    ..R1-EGFP) 14d prior to optic nerve crush...
  23. doi Quantitative 3-T diffusion tensor imaging in detecting optic nerve degeneration in patients with glaucoma: association with retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and clinical severity
    Mei Yun Wang
    Department of Radiology, Henan Provincial People s Hospital and the People s Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 7 Weiwu Rd, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003, China
    Neuroradiology 55:493-8. 2013
    ..3-T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and clinical severity in detecting optic nerve degeneration in patients with primary closed-angle glaucoma.
  24. pmc Oncomodulin links inflammation to optic nerve regeneration
    Yuqin Yin
    Department of Surgery and Anesthesiology, Children s Hospital, Laboratory for Neuroscience Research in Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19587-92. 2009
    ..In the optic nerve, a CNS pathway that normally fails to regenerate when damaged, intraocular inflammation causes retinal ganglion ..
  25. pmc Common variants at 9p21 and 8q22 are associated with increased susceptibility to optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma
    Janey L Wiggs
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002654. 2012
    b>Optic nerve degeneration caused by glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Patients affected by the normal-pressure form of glaucoma are more likely to harbor risk alleles for glaucoma-related optic nerve disease...
  26. ncbi Macrophage-derived factors stimulate optic nerve regeneration
    Yuqin Yin
    Laboratories for Neuroscience Research in Neurosurgery, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 23:2284-93. 2003
    After optic nerve injury in mature mammals, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are normally unable to regenerate their axons and undergo delayed apoptosis...
  27. pmc Cyan fluorescent protein expression in ganglion and amacrine cells in a thy1-CFP transgenic mouse retina
    Iona D Raymond
    Department of Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1763, USA
    Mol Vis 14:1559-74. 2008
    ..To characterize cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) expression in the retina of the thy1-CFP (B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-CFP)23Jrs/J) transgenic mouse line...
  28. pmc Math5 is required for retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation
    N L Brown
    Departments of Internal Medicine and Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0650, USA
    Development 128:2497-508. 2001
    ..and glial cell types in an interconnected network that collects, processes and sends visual signals through the optic nerve to the brain...
  29. pmc AxCaliber: a method for measuring axon diameter distribution from diffusion MRI
    Yaniv Assaf
    Department of Neurobiology, The George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Magn Reson Med 59:1347-54. 2008
    ..by comparing the diameter distributions measured using the NMR and histological techniques on sciatic and optic nerve tissue specimens...
  30. doi Glaucoma of the brain: a disease model for the study of transsynaptic neural degeneration
    Yeni Yucel
    Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Keenan Research Centre at the Li Ka Shing, Knowledge Institute of St Michael s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Prog Brain Res 173:465-78. 2008
    ..The study of this glaucoma model of transsynaptic brain injury may be relevant to understanding more complex pathways and point to new strategies to prevent disease progression in other neurodegenerative diseases...
  31. doi Mechanism of retinal ganglion cells death in secondary degeneration of the optic nerve
    Hani Levkovitch-Verbin
    Sam Rothberg Ophthalmic Molecular Biology Laboratory, Goldschleger Eye Institute, Sheba Medical Center, 52621 Tel Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel
    Exp Eye Res 91:127-34. 2010
    ..Here, we investigated the mechanism of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in secondary degeneration of the optic nerve using a unique model that allows morphological separation between primary and secondary degeneration...
  32. ncbi Axon-glia interactions and the domain organization of myelinated axons requires neurexin IV/Caspr/Paranodin
    M A Bhat
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Neuron 30:369-83. 2001
    ..These results show a critical role for NCP1 in the delineation of specific axonal domains and the axon-glia interactions required for normal saltatory conduction...
  33. doi Off-target effects of epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists mediate retinal ganglion cell disinhibited axon growth
    Michael R Douglas
    Molecular Neuroscience Group, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Brain 132:3102-21. 2009
    ..with local administration of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors AG1478 and PD168393 to an optic nerve lesion site promoting adult retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration...
  34. pmc Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy differentially affects smaller axons in the optic nerve
    A A Sadun
    Doheny Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
    Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 98:223-32; discussion 232-5. 2000
    ..Montages were made of electron micrographs cut orthogonal to fibers obtained from the periphery of each optic nerve, and these were then used for the measurement of each axon (short and long axis) and its myelin sheath...
  35. pmc Reproducibility of nerve fiber thickness, macular thickness, and optic nerve head measurements using StratusOCT
    Lelia A Paunescu
    New England Eye Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:1716-24. 2004
    ..A2, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA) was investigated. The nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness, macula thickness map, and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in normal eyes were studied.
  36. pmc The angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor promotes axonal regeneration in the optic nerve of adult rats
    R Lucius
    Institute of Anatomy, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, D 24105 Kiel, Germany
    J Exp Med 188:661-70. 1998
    ..and dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro, and, moreover, axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush in vivo...
  37. ncbi Interferon beta-1b exacerbates multiple sclerosis with severe optic nerve and spinal cord demyelination
    Yoko Warabi
    Department of Neurology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
    J Neurol Sci 252:57-61. 2007
    To evaluate the effect of interferon beta-1b (IFNB-1b) on multiple sclerosis (MS) with severe optic nerve and spinal cord demyelination, we examined the relationship between IFNB-1b treatment outcome and the clinical and genetic ..
  38. ncbi Autoantibodies in patients with glaucoma: a comparison of IgG serum antibodies against retinal, optic nerve, and optic nerve head antigens
    Stephanie C Joachim
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55101 Mainz, Germany
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 243:817-23. 2005
    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the entire IgG autoantibody patterns against different ocular antigens (retina, optic nerve, and optic nerve head) in sera of glaucoma patients and healthy subjects.
  39. ncbi Axonal swellings and degeneration in mice lacking the major proteolipid of myelin
    I Griffiths
    Applied Neurobiology Group, Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, Scotland, UK
    Science 280:1610-3. 1998
    ..Thus, fiber degeneration, which was probably secondary to impaired axonal transport, could indicate that myelinated axons require local oligodendroglial support...
  40. ncbi Inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK) increases neurite outgrowth on chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan in vitro and axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve in vivo
    Paul Lingor
    Department of Neurology, Georg August University Gottingen, Faculty of Medicine, Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurochem 103:181-9. 2007
    ..In the rat optic nerve crush model Y-27632 dose-dependently increased regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons in vivo...
  41. ncbi Elevated intracranial pressure detected by bedside emergency ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath
    Michael Blaivas
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, AF 2056, Augusta, GA 30912 4007, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 10:376-81. 2003
    ..A rapid, portable, and noninvasive means of detecting EICP is desirable when conventional imaging methods are unavailable...
  42. pmc Diffusion tensor imaging of the optic nerve in multiple sclerosis: association with retinal damage and visual disability
    S A Smith
    Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 32:1662-8. 2011
    There is a well-known relationship between MS and damage to the optic nerve, but advanced, quantitative MR imaging methods have not been applied to large cohorts...
  43. ncbi Ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath may be useful for detecting raised intracranial pressure after severe brain injury
    Thomas Geeraerts
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Hospital of Bicetre, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP, Faculty of Medicine, University of Paris Sud, Le Kremlin Bicetre, 94275, Paris, France
    Intensive Care Med 33:1704-11. 2007
    To assess at admission to the ICU the relationship between optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and intracranial pressure (ICP) and to investigate whether increased ONSD at patient admission is associated with raised ICP in the first 48[..
  44. ncbi Ophthalmoscopic evaluation of the optic nerve head
    J B Jonas
    Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, University Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Surv Ophthalmol 43:293-320. 1999
    b>Optic nerve diseases, such as the glaucomas, lead to changes in the intrapapillary and parapapillary region of the optic nerve head...
  45. pmc How the optic nerve allocates space, energy capacity, and information
    János A Perge
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurosci 29:7917-28. 2009
    ..We found for a myelinated tract (optic nerve) that astrocytes use nearly 30% of the space and >70% of the mitochondria, establishing the significance of ..
  46. ncbi Visually evoked hemodynamical response and assessment of neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve and retina
    Charles E Riva
    Institut de Recherche en Ophtalmologie, 1950 Sion, Switzerland
    Prog Retin Eye Res 24:183-215. 2005
    The retina and optic nerve are both optically accessible parts of the central nervous system...
  47. doi Number and topography of cones, rods and optic nerve axons in New and Old World primates
    Barbara L Finlay
    Department of Psychology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Vis Neurosci 25:289-99. 2008
    ..understand the evolution of spatial and color vision, the number and spatial distributions of cones, rods, and optic nerve axon numbers were assessed in seven New World primates (Cebus apella, Saimiri ustius, Saguinus midas niger, ..
  48. ncbi Observer variation in the sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter in normal adults
    S A Ballantyne
    Department of Radiology and Clinical Physics, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, G46 7PD, Glasgow, UK
    Eur J Ultrasound 15:145-9. 2002
    To quantify the observer variation in the sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) in normal adults.
  49. ncbi Chemotactic effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor on macrophages in retinal ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration
    Ling Ping Cen
    Joint Shantou International Eye Center of Shantou University and The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Peoples Republic of China
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:4257-66. 2007
    To examine whether ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has a chemotactic effect on macrophages and whether macrophages are involved in CNTF-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axonal regeneration after optic nerve (ON) injury.
  50. doi Sera of glaucoma patients show autoantibodies against myelin basic protein and complex autoantibody profiles against human optic nerve antigens
    Stephanie C Joachim
    Experimental Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Langenbeckstrabe 1, 55101 Mainz, Germany
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 246:573-80. 2008
    ..We analyzed the complex autoantibody patterns against human optic nerve antigens in sera of patients with glaucoma and tried to identify important antigens.
  51. doi Immunolocalization of gap junction protein connexin43 (GJA1) in the human retina and optic nerve
    Nathan M Kerr
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:4028-34. 2010
    ..This study determines the expression pattern of gap junction protein connexin43 in the human retina and optic nerve.
  52. doi Optic nerve diffusion changes and atrophy jointly predict visual dysfunction after optic neuritis
    Scott Kolbe
    The Howard Florey Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
    Neuroimage 45:679-86. 2009
    ..Optic neuritis, a condition characterised by inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve, is one of the commonest sites of MS relapse, and exhibits similar pathological alterations to MS lesions ..
  53. pmc Gene regulation logic in retinal ganglion cell development: Isl1 defines a critical branch distinct from but overlapping with Pou4f2
    Xiuqian Mu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, M D Anderson Cancer Center and Graduate Training Program in Genes and Development, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:6942-7. 2008
    ..They also reveal that identical RGC expression patterns are achieved by different combinations of divergent inputs from upstream transcription factors...
  54. pmc Visual deficits in a mouse model of Batten disease are the result of optic nerve degeneration and loss of dorsal lateral geniculate thalamic neurons
    Jill M Weimer
    Center for Aging and Developmental Biology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 22:284-93. 2006
    ..Having previously demonstrated that Cln3(-/-) mice have decreased optic nerve axonal density, we now demonstrate a decrease in nerve conduction...
  55. pmc Cooperation between two growth factors promotes extended self-renewal and inhibits differentiation of oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (O-2A) progenitor cells
    O Bogler
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:6368-72. 1990
    ..astrocyte (O-2A) progenitor cells, which give rise to oligodendrocytes and type-2 astrocytes in cultures of rat optic nerve, are one of the few cell types in which most aspects of proliferation and differentiation can be manipulated in ..
  56. ncbi Early postnatal Müller cell death leads to retinal but not optic nerve degeneration in NSE-Hu-Bcl-2 transgenic mice
    M Dubois-Dauphin
    Division of Neuroscience, Geneva University Hospital, Belle Idée 2, chemin du Petit Bel Air, Geneva, Switzerland
    Neuroscience 95:9-21. 2000
    ..The optic nerve, however, remains intact...
  57. ncbi Cells expressing the NG2 antigen contact nodes of Ranvier in adult CNS white matter
    A M Butt
    Division of Physiology, Guy s, King s and St Thomas School of Biomedical Sciences, King s College London, United Kingdom
    Glia 26:84-91. 1999
    ..chondroitin sulphate, labels a significant population of cells in adult CNS white matter tracts of the rat optic nerve and anterior medullary velum (AMV)...
  58. ncbi Antibody against myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite growth neutralizes nonpermissive substrate properties of CNS white matter
    P Caroni
    Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Neuron 1:85-96. 1988
    ..b>Optic nerve explants injected with IN-1 or IN-2 allowed axon ingrowth of cocultured sensory and sympathetic neurons...
  59. pmc Misguidance and modulation of axonal regeneration by Stat3 and Rho/ROCK signaling in the transparent optic nerve
    V Pernet
    Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich and Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Cell Death Dis 4:e734. 2013
    ..model, CNTF was shown to be the most potent known neurotrophic factor for axonal regeneration in the injured optic nerve. To clarify the role of the downstream growth regulator Stat3, we analyzed axonal regeneration and neuronal ..
  60. doi Preclinical retinal neurodegeneration in a model of multiple sclerosis
    Richard Fairless
    Department of Neurology, University of the Saarland, 66421 Homburg Saar, Germany
    J Neurosci 32:5585-97. 2012
    ..raised the question of whether primary neurodegenerative changes can occur in the retina independent of optic nerve inflammation...
  61. doi Quantitative retinal protein analysis after optic nerve transection reveals a neuroprotective role for hepatoma-derived growth factor on injured retinal ganglion cells
    Adam Hollander
    Division of Anatomy, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Canada
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:3973-89. 2012
    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is an important cause of visual impairment and can be modeled by optic nerve transection, which causes the death of 90% of RGCs within 14 days postaxotomy...
  62. pmc Estrogen deficiency accelerates aging of the optic nerve
    Thasarat S Vajaranant
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    Menopause 19:942-7. 2012
    The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive review on hormone-based pathophysiology of aging of the optic nerve and glaucoma, including a literature review and expert opinions...
  63. doi Promoting optic nerve regeneration
    Dietmar Fischer
    Department of Neurology, Experimental Neurology, Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, Merowingerplatz 1a, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Prog Retin Eye Res 31:688-701. 2012
    ..sense for humans and it is irreversibly impaired by axonal damage of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the optic nerve due to the lack of axonal regeneration...
  64. ncbi Optic nerve transection in monkeys may result in secondary degeneration of retinal ganglion cells
    H Levkovitch-Verbin
    Glaucoma Research Laboratory, Wilmer Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:975-82. 2001
    ..This experiment was designed to test whether secondary RGC degeneration occurs after orbital optic nerve injury in monkeys...
  65. ncbi Evidence that Wallerian degeneration and localized axon degeneration induced by local neurotrophin deprivation do not involve caspases
    J T Finn
    Medical Research Council Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 20:1333-41. 2000
    ..Our results suggest that a neuron contains at least two molecularly distinct self-destruction programs, one for caspase-dependent apoptosis and another for selective axon degeneration...
  66. ncbi The growth factor response in ischemic rat retina and superior colliculus after brimonidine pre-treatment
    Ulrika Lönngren
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Brain Res Bull 71:208-18. 2006
    ....
  67. doi Nitric oxide-cGMP signaling regulates axonal elongation during optic nerve regeneration in the goldfish in vitro and in vivo
    Yoshiki Koriyama
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Division of Laboratory Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
    J Neurochem 110:890-901. 2009
    ..We investigated the role of NO signaling on optic nerve regeneration in the goldfish (Carassius auratus)...
  68. doi Autoreactive antibodies and loss of retinal ganglion cells in rats induced by immunization with ocular antigens
    Panagiotis Laspas
    Experimental Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:8835-48. 2011
    ..The target of this study was to investigate the pathomechanism behind this decline and the serum antibody reactivity against ocular and neuronal tissues after immunization with glaucoma- and non-glaucoma-associated antigens...
  69. pmc Progressive damage along the optic nerve following induction of crush injury or rodent anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in transgenic mice
    O Dratviman-Storobinsky
    The Krieger Eye Research Laboratory, Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Tel Aviv University, Petah Tiqwa, Israel
    Mol Vis 14:2171-9. 2008
    To characterize the histological changes that occur in response to induction of ischemic or mechanical optic nerve damage in transgenic mice.
  70. doi Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review
    Lisandro M Sakata
    Department of Ophthalmology, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil
    Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 37:90-9. 2009
    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapid non-contact method that allows in vivo imaging of the retina, optic nerve head and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL)...
  71. doi Effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on rat retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve axotomy
    Pai Huei Peng
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shin Kong Wu Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Exp Eye Res 90:528-34. 2010
    ..Wistar rats received intracranial optic nerve (ON) axotomy 2 mm behind the globe in left eyes, whereas right eyes received sham operations...
  72. doi Relationship between glial potassium regulation and axon excitability: a role for glial Kir4.1 channels
    Virginia Bay
    Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Science IBBS, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DT, United Kingdom
    Glia 60:651-60. 2012
    ..in regulating extracellular K(+) ([K(+)](o)) and axonal electrical activity in CNS white matter of the mouse optic nerve. Increasing optic nerve stimulation frequency from 1 Hz to 10-35 Hz for 120 s resulted in a rise in [K(+)](o) ..
  73. pmc Ocular neuroprotection by siRNA targeting caspase-2
    Z Ahmed
    Neuropharmacology and Neurobiology Section, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Cell Death Dis 2:e173. 2011
    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss after optic nerve damage is a hallmark of certain human ophthalmic diseases including ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) and glaucoma...
  74. ncbi Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode
    C Veraart
    Neural Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate, 54, UCL 54 46 B 1200, Brussels, Belgium
    Brain Res 813:181-6. 1998
    ..with retinitis pigmentosa was chronically implanted with a self-sizing spiral cuff electrode around an optic nerve. Electrical stimuli applied to the nerve produced localized visual sensations that were broadly distributed ..
  75. doi Involvement of retinoic acid signaling in goldfish optic nerve regeneration
    Mikiko Nagashima
    Kanazawa University, Japan
    Neurochem Int 54:229-36. 2009
    ..a retina-specific retinol-binding protein, purpurin, as a trigger molecule in the early stage of goldfish optic nerve regeneration...
  76. pmc Changes in ocular aquaporin expression following optic nerve crush
    Adnan Dibas
    Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX, USA
    Mol Vis 16:330-40. 2010
    ..However, such changes and mechanisms remain to be evaluated for retinal injury after optic nerve crush (ONC)...
  77. doi Disruption of the complement cascade delays retinal ganglion cell death following retinal ischemia-reperfusion
    Markus H Kuehn
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Exp Eye Res 87:89-95. 2008
    ..RGC death and associated axon loss was evaluated through histological examination of the optic nerve and retina. Our data show that retinal I/R induces the expression and deposition of complement components...
  78. ncbi Ischemic necrosis and atrophy of the optic nerve after periocular carboplatin injection for intraocular retinoblastoma
    Ingo Schmack
    Emory Eye Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 142:310-5. 2006
    To report four cases of optic nerve neuropathy in three children treated with periocular carboplatin injections for unilateral or bilateral intraocular retinoblastoma.
  79. pmc Human glaucoma and neural degeneration in intracranial optic nerve, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex
    N Gupta
    Neuropathology, Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory, University of Toronto, St Michael s Hospital, 30 Bond Street, West Annex, Room 1 026, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Br J Ophthalmol 90:674-8. 2006
    The pathology of glaucoma has been extensively studied at the level of the retina and optic nerve head...
  80. pmc POU domain factor Brn-3b is required for the development of a large set of retinal ganglion cells
    L Gan
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:3920-5. 1996
    ..In Brn-3b (-/-) mice other neurons within the retina and brain are minimally or not at all affected. These experiments indicate that Brn-3b plays an essential role in the development of specific ganglion cell types...
  81. ncbi Rat retinal microglial cells under normal conditions, after optic nerve section, and after optic nerve section and intravitreal injection of trophic factors or macrophage inhibitory factor
    Paloma Sobrado-Calvo
    Departamento de Oftalmologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain
    J Comp Neurol 501:866-78. 2007
    ..microglial cells may have a role in both degeneration and neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) after optic nerve (ON) section...
  82. ncbi Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mediates survival, but not axon regeneration, of adult injured central nervous system neurons in vivo
    Vincent Pernet
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Neurochem 93:72-83. 2005
    ..analysis of cell survival demonstrated that Erk1/2 activation promoted robust RGC neuroprotection after optic nerve injury...
  83. ncbi Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis
    Elliot Frohman
    Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75235, USA
    Lancet Neurol 5:853-63. 2006
    ..In this review, we consider the usefulness of optical imaging of the retina as a biomarker for neurodegeneration in multiple-sclerosis...
  84. ncbi Acute neuronal apoptosis in a rat model of multiple sclerosis
    R Meyer
    , , Germany
    J Neurosci 21:6214-20. 2001
    ..experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, we demonstrate that an immune-mediated attack of the optic nerve is accompanied by an early degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)...
  85. doi Tracking retinal nerve fiber layer loss after optic neuritis: a prospective study using optical coherence tomography
    F Costello
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Ophthalmology, The University of Calgary and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Mult Scler 14:893-905. 2008
    ..Optical coherence tomography may be used to track nerve fiber layer changes and to establish a time-dependent relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and visual function after optic neuritis...
  86. ncbi Proper patterning of the optic fissure requires the sequential activity of BMP7 and SHH
    Julian Morcillo
    Departamento de Neurobiologia del Desarrollo, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Dr Arce 37, Madrid 28002, Spain
    Development 133:3179-90. 2006
    ..cell proliferation and apoptosis in the proximoventral quadrant of the optic cup, lack of the hyaloid artery, optic nerve aplasia, and intra-retinal misrouting of RGC axons...
  87. pmc Oligodendroglial modulation of fast axonal transport in a mouse model of hereditary spastic paraplegia
    Julia M Edgar
    Applied Neurobiology Group, Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    J Cell Biol 166:121-31. 2004
    ..Our data demonstrate a novel role for oligodendrocytes in the local regulation of axonal function and have implications for the axonal loss associated with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis...
  88. doi The role of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in the survival of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve axotomy
    Yasunari Munemasa
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:3869-75. 2009
    ..The authors analyzed the expression of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in a rat optic nerve transection (ONT) model characterized by specific retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration and determined their ..
  89. pmc Long-distance axon regeneration in the mature optic nerve: contributions of oncomodulin, cAMP, and pten gene deletion
    Takuji Kurimoto
    Laboratory for Neuroscience Research in Neurosurgery and F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 30:15654-63. 2010
    The inability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to regenerate damaged axons through the optic nerve has dire consequences for victims of traumatic nerve injury and certain neurodegenerative diseases...
  90. pmc Gamma-synuclein as a marker of retinal ganglion cells
    Irina Surgucheva
    Retinal Biology Research Laboratory, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 64128, USA
    Mol Vis 14:1540-8. 2008
    ..Here we asked whether gamma-synuclein expression in the retina can be considered a specific marker of RGCs...
  91. doi P2X7 receptors mediate ischemic damage to oligodendrocytes
    Maria Domercq
    Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Red Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas CIBERNED and Departamento de Neurociencias, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain
    Glia 58:730-40. 2010
    ....
  92. doi Involvement of gp130-associated cytokine signaling in Müller cell activation following optic nerve lesion
    Matthias Kirsch
    Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Freiburg, Albertstr 23, Freiburg, Germany
    Glia 58:768-79. 2010
    ..Here, we investigated their function by studying Müller cell activation induced by optic nerve crush in CNTF- and LIF-deficient mice, and in animals with deficiencies in cytokine signaling pathways...
  93. ncbi Reduction of optic nerve fibers in patients with Alzheimer disease identified by laser imaging
    H V Danesh-Meyer
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Auckland, Auckland New Zealand
    Neurology 67:1852-4. 2006
    ..There was a reduction in the number of ON fibers in patients with AD, with a threefold greater odds ratio for a larger optic cup-to-disc ratio in patients with AD...
  94. pmc Dicer1 and miR-219 Are required for normal oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination
    Jason C Dugas
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5125, USA
    Neuron 65:597-611. 2010
    ..Together, these findings show that miR-219 plays a critical role in coupling differentiation to proliferation arrest in the OL lineage, enabling the rapid transition from proliferating OPCs to myelinating OLs...
  95. pmc The microbead occlusion model: a paradigm for induced ocular hypertension in rats and mice
    Rebecca M Sappington
    Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0654, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:207-16. 2010
    ..Here the authors describe a novel and relatively simple method for inducing a highly consistent, modest, and repeatable elevation in IOP for rats and mice...
  96. ncbi Laser-induced mouse model of chronic ocular hypertension
    Sinisa D Grozdanic
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:4337-46. 2003
    ..To develop an inducible mouse model of glaucoma...
  97. ncbi ROCK inhibition and CNTF interact on intrinsic signalling pathways and differentially regulate survival and regeneration in retinal ganglion cells
    Paul Lingor
    1Department of Neurology, Georg August University Gottingen, University Medicine, Waldweg 33, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
    Brain 131:250-63. 2008
    ..In vivo, both CNTF and Y-27632 enhanced regeneration of RGC into the non-permissive optic nerve crush model and additive effects were observed after combination treatment...
  98. ncbi Fibroblast growth factor 2 applied to the optic nerve after axotomy up-regulates BDNF and TrkB in ganglion cells by activating the ERK and PKA signaling pathways
    Ileana Soto
    Institute of Neurobiology and Department of Anatomy, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, 201 Boulevard del Valle, Old San Juan, Puerto Rico 00901
    J Neurochem 96:82-96. 2006
    Application of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) to the optic nerve after axotomy promotes the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the frog, Rana pipiens...
  99. ncbi Clinical practice. Optic neuritis
    Laura J Balcer
    Division of Neuro ophthalmology, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:1273-80. 2006
  100. ncbi A role for humoral mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Devic's neuromyelitis optica
    Claudia F Lucchinetti
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
    Brain 125:1450-61. 2002
    ..Based on this study, future therapeutic strategies designed to limit the deleterious effects of complement activation, eosinophil degranulation and neutrophil/macrophage/microglial activation are worthy of further investigation...
  101. ncbi The mutant human ND4 subunit of complex I induces optic neuropathy in the mouse
    Xiaoping Qi
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 0284, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:1-10. 2007
    ..To produce a mouse model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy...

Research Grants70

  1. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The disease is marked by a wearing down of the retina and optic nerve, often associated with increased pressure in the eye. It is often an inherited trait...
  2. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The disease is marked by a wearing down of the retina and optic nerve, often associated with increased pressure in the eye. It is often an inherited trait...
  3. Axonopathy in Glaucoma
    Samuel D Crish; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neuronal tracer cholera toxin beta subunit (CTB), and 2) axonal degeneration - immunofluorescence in the SC and optic nerve of the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projection marker estrogen-related receptor beta (ERR[unreadable]) and the ..
  4. Role of endothelin receptors in glaucomatous optic neuropathy
    Raghu R Krishnamoorthy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project Summary Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by degeneration of the optic nerve, cupping of the optic disc and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, ultimately resulting in blindness...
  5. New Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Glaucoma
    Andrei Surguchov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Abstract Glaucoma can be defined as progressive optic neuropathy with structural damage of the optic nerve (ON) head and selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC)...
  6. Mechanisms of Astrocyte Development
    Teri L Belecky Adams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Mature optic nerve and retinal astrocytes play a metabolically supportive role for retinal ganglion cells, as well as maintain the ..
  7. Optic Nerve Aging and Glaucoma
    Thasarat Vajaranant; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..open-angle glaucoma (POAG), age-dependent and intraocular pressure (IOP)-related neurodegeneration of the optic nerve comprises 74% of all types of glaucoma...
  8. Novel Mitochondrial Targeted Neuroprotectants for Glaucoma
    Leonard Levin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Optic nerve diseases are common causes of irreversible blindness. Most are incurable or result in permanent visual loss by the time of diagnosis...
  9. Astrocyte Development and Reactive Gliosis
    Teri L Belecky-Adams; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..goal of this laboratory is to enhance the ability of the human nervous system, particularly the retina and/or optic nerve, to regenerate...
  10. Experimental Optic Neuritis: Gene Therapy
    John Guy; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Antioxidant gene therapy restored integrity to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reduced demyelination of the optic nerve. However, axonal and neuronal degeneration rather than demyelination are now increasingly recognized as the ..
  11. Opioidergic System: Its Role(s) in Glaucoma
    Shahid Husain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the world's leading causes of visual impairment and blindness, is characterized by excavation of the optic nerve head and selective apoptotic loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), resulting in a progressive decline in ..
  12. The Role of Connexin32 in the Pathogensis of CMTX
    STEVEN SIMON SCHERER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of O: O junctions, and examine the expression of glial connexins (Cx30, Cx32, Cx43, Cx47) in two tracts - the optic nerve and the ventral funiculus of the cervical spinal cord. 3. The functional significance of O: O coupling...
  13. Mitochondrial Inborn Errors in Metabolism
    Douglas C Wallace; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..LHON complex I gene mutations result in progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and optic nerve degeneration with males being 2 to 5 times more likely to be affected than females and with a highly variable ..
  14. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF AGING RETINA
    Christine A Curcio; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will obtain SD-OCT images of excised macula and optic nerve followed by high-resolution, wide-field histological cross-sections...
  15. Establishing a neuroprotection model in the nonhuman primate to support translati
    MATTHEW SWAN LAWRENCE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Optic nerve and retinal diseases profoundly impact quality of life and overall health care burden...
  16. Mechanism of SIRT1 activator mediated neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells
    Kenneth S Shindler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Optic neuritis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the optic nerve that occurs in association with the central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and leads to permanent visual loss in up to 40% of ..
  17. Protein Acetylation in Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy
    Craig E Crosson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..participate in ganglion cell death, and enzymes responsible for extracellular matrix remodeling associated with optic nerve head cupping...
  18. Structural and Functional Changes in Myopia and Susceptibility to Glaucoma
    Lisa Ostrin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cribrosa, and these studies will be complemented by ultrastructural studies of the lamina cribrosa of the deep optic nerve head, using electron microscopy...
  19. The Biomechanics of the Human Posterior Sclera: Effects of Age, Sex, and Glaucoma
    Thao D Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The IOP is translated into mechanical stresses on the optic nerve head, an opening in the posterior sclera for the passage of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) to the brain, by the ..
  20. Chinese American Eye Study
    Rohit Varma; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..angle, ultrasonic measurement of the anterior chamber depth and lens thickness, and imaging of the fundus and optic nerve. The standardized study design and methodology will allow us to compare our data in Chinese Americans with ..
  21. Imaging retinal astrocytes, ganglion cells and axonal transport in vivo
    Brad Fortune; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..active axonal transport;acute elevation of intraocular pressure;chronic elevation of intraocular pressure;and optic nerve crush) with results obtained in bilateral control eyes...
  22. The microglial potassium channels Kv1.3 and KCa3.1 as therapeutic targets for neu
    Heike Wulff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from phagocytosing damaged neurons but increases the number of surviving retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve transection in rats by reducing the production and/or secretion of neurotoxic molecules in the retina...
  23. Characterization of RGC death susceptibility alleles
    Robert W Nickells; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..disease characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and degeneration of the optic nerve. Although significant progress has been made in the field of the genetics of this disease, the majority of ..
  24. Immune-mediated Neuroprotection of Retinal Ganglion Cells
    DALE SANNES GREGERSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Using the optic nerve crush model for retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma, the first Aim tests our hypothesis that dendritic ..
  25. Transgenic Mitomice Models for Treatment of Blinding Diseases
    John Guy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..induced visual loss with a progressive demise of ganglion cells in the retina and their axons comprising the optic nerve, thus recapitulating the hallmarks of the human LHON disorder...
  26. STUDIES IN GLAUCOMATOUS OPTIC NERVE DAMAGE
    John C Morrison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is essential for developing glaucoma treatments that will protect the optic nerve. We have determined that an 8- hour exposure to Controlled Elevation of IOP (CEI) in anesthetized rats will ..
  27. Modification of AdenoAssociated Virus to deliver DNA directly to Mitochondria
    John Guy; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Almost all of them involve ocular structures that include the optic nerve, retina, extraocular muscles or eyelids...
  28. Interleukin-6 and Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration in Glaucoma
    Rebecca M Sappington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..disease that blinds through the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons in the optic nerve. By 2020, 80 million people will suffer from the disease, making it the leading cause of irreversible blindness...
  29. The Role of Complement System in Glaucoma
    Markus H Kuehn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons, and is clinically recognized by characteristic changes to the optic nerve head and resultant visual field loss...
  30. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Gene Therapy Trial
    John Guy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..system disrupted mitochondrial cytoarchitecture, elevated reactive oxygen species, induced swelling of the optic nerve head and induced apoptosis, with a progressive demise of ganglion cells in the retina and their axons ..
  31. PATHOGENESIS OF GLAUCOMATOUS OPTIC NERVE DAMAGE
    HARRY ALAN QUIGLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It studies how the sclera affects injury to retinal ganglion cells (RGC) by producing strain in the optic nerve head...
  32. TRACKING NEURODEGENERATION IN EARLY WOLFRAM SYNDROME
    TAMARA G HERSHEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes, followed by optic nerve atrophy, vision loss, hearing loss, diabetes insipidus and neurodegeneration, resulting in death in middle ..
  33. Mitochondrial dysfunction in glaucomatous optic neuropathy
    Won Kyu Ju; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..excessive mitochondrial fission and cristae depletion, as well as OPA1 gene deficiency in the retina and optic nerve head (ONH) of glaucomatous DBA/2J (D2) mice...
  34. Discovery of Biomakers in Human Mitochondrial Disorders
    RONALD WAYNE DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Neuropathy (LHON), which is characterized by the selective degeneration of retinal ganglion cells leading to optic nerve atrophy and blindness. We propose two specific aims...
  35. NEURITIN:novel RGC neurotrophic factor and potential target for glaucoma therapy
    Donald J Zack; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..By studying experimental models of glaucoma and optic nerve injury, we and others have determined some of the cellular and gene expression alterations associated with the ..
  36. Detection of Glaucoma Progression with Macular OCT Imaging
    Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is widely accepted that measurement of the optic nerve head or RNFL parameters in advanced glaucoma does not provide clinicians with much useful information...
  37. Regulation of Calcium Signaling in Retinal Ganglion Cells after Nerve Injury
    Nicholas C Brecha; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Optic neuropathies are characterized by primary injury to the optic nerve, and loss of ganglion cells and their axons...
  38. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF RETINAL GANGLION CELL DEATH
    Robert W Nickells; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..used Bax knockout mice to show that this proapoptotic gene was essential for ganglion cell death stimulated by optic nerve crush and in a mouse model of spontaneous glaucoma...
  39. PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF RETINAL GANGLION CELLS
    Andrew T Ishida; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..light sensitivity o photoreceptors, daylight modulates the shape and number of spikes in the adult mammalian optic nerve. The long-term objectives of this work are (i) to identify properties of optic nerve spikes that are altered by ..
  40. Open Angle Glaucoma in Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Alpha 1 Deficient Mice
    Emmanuel S Buys; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A - Study the effect of increasing IOP (with microbeads) on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the optic nerve (ON) in young WT and sGC??1 -/- mice...
  41. MYELIN PROTEIN GENE EXPRESSION IN DYSMYELINATING MUTANTS
    Wendy B Macklin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of these null mutations for migration of neurons and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in cerebellum, optic nerve and embryonic telencephalon, using real time imaging...
  42. Extracelluar Matrix Organization and Biomechanics of the Lamina Cribrosa and Peri
    JONATHAN PIETER VANDE GEEST; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The mechanical theory of glaucoma rests on the assumption that mechanical damage forces acting on the optic nerve cause a loss of retinal ganglion cell function...
  43. Inflammation and Degeneration of Optic Nerve in EAE
    Naren L Banik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Impaired vision due to optic nerve damage is one of the most common presenting symptoms of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). MS-associated optic nerve damage is due to an influx of auto-reactive T cells and other immune cells...
  44. NUCLEAR DYNAMICS IN RETINAL DEVELOPMENT AND HOMEOSTASIS
    Didier Hodzic; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..nuclear movements are associated to severe neurodevelopmental defects such as abnormal cortical lamination, optic nerve hypoplasia and atrophy, retinal dysplasia, macular hypoplasia and microphthalmia...
  45. Aquaporin-4 in NMO Optic Neuritis: Pathogenesis and New Therapies
    Alan S Verkman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed in astrocytes throughout the central nervous system, including optic nerve and retina...
  46. Noninvasive Visualization and Analysis of Organ Systems using OCT and Digital Fun
    Steven J Pittler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The OCT instrument will also be utilized by a group of minor users that are studying retina, optic nerve, heart and brain...
  47. INVESTIGATION OF MAMMALIAN RETINAL NEURON DEVELOPMENT
    Nadean L Brown; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This work will yield a better understanding of cone-rod dystrophies, optic nerve aplasia, hypoplasia, as well as contribute to basic mechanisms of retinal cell development with direct relevany ..
  48. Statins To Prevent Progression of Glaucoma: The STOP Glaucoma Trial
    Joshua D Stein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mechanisms by which statins may protect against OAG progression-for example, by improving blood flow to the optic nerve as a result of upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and by enhancing aqueous outflow through the ..
  49. Migraine pathophysiology: neural basis of photophobia
    Rami Burstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pain pathways may be modulated by converging signals transmitted from the retina to the brain through the optic nerve. In the rat thalamus, we identified dura-sensitive neurons whose ongoing activity was strongly modulated by ..
  50. High-resolution imaging of the normal and diseased retina
    Jason Porter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the idea that RGC axons are initially damaged due to structural alterations in the lamina cribrosa within the optic nerve head (ONH). However, the vast majority of supporting studies are based on data from excised eyes...
  51. Effect of NF1 mutation on choroid plexus function
    Sally Temple; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..perturbed cortical and hippocampal layering, enlarged brain midline structures, astrocytosis, astrocytomas and optic nerve gliomas...
  52. Enhanced Axon Sparing In Glaucoma Through Augmentation Of EphB/ephrin B Signaling
    David W Sretavan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..segment is as high as 1 in 20, there is a great need to better understand disease mechanisms underlying optic nerve axon loss and to identify potential therapeutic strategies...
  53. Investigating Cell Specific Roles of the Complement Cascade in Glaucoma
    Gareth R Howell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cascade occurs very early during glaucoma, in both the retina (in retinal ganglion cells and microglia) and optic nerve head (in microglia)...
  54. Ocular HSV: Role of virus and IL-2 in Optic neuritis
    Homayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..spectrum of immunopathologic syndromes in which, myelin, the fatty covering of nerve cell fibers in the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord, is destroyed...
  55. Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma
    David Huang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..2. Develop ultrafast OCT systems for imaging the macula and optic nerve head. We will develop the next generation technology that is up to 40 times faster (1 MHz) than current FD-OCT...
  56. Sirtuins in Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy
    Robert N Weinreb; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..overall hypothesis is that increased Sirt1 activation will protect against glaucomatous damage in the retina, optic nerve, and brain of mouse models of glaucoma...
  57. GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS IN MURINE NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES
    Thomas N Seyfried; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..evaluate the degree to which AAV gene therapy corrects lipid abnormalities and inflammation in purified myelin, optic nerve, and retina in storage disease mice...
  58. Reverse Engineering of Trabecular Meshwork
    Nils A Loewen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..trabecular meshwork" is responsible for the elevated eye pressure and worsening, irreversible damage of the optic nerve. This meshwork regulates flow by an unknown mechanism...
  59. Genetics of Quantitative Traits Associated with Glaucoma
    John H Fingert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Glaucoma is defined by quantitative traits including, optic nerve cupping, visual field loss, and central corneal thickness...
  60. Inpp5f regulates CNS axon regeneration through phosphoinositide metabolism
    Yixiao Zou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to characterize the role of INPP5F, a putative suppressor of CNS axon regeneration, in limiting recovery after optic nerve crush and spinal cord dorsal hemisection injury in mice...
  61. High-content high-throughput functional genomics in rodent retinal ganglion cells
    DEREK STUART WELSBIE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..delivered shRNAs targeting the murine kinome to identify those kinases that mediate RGC death in response to optic nerve transection...
  62. Localized immobilization of ephrin-B2 for neurite guidance in 3D culture
    Michael J Moore; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the optic nerve, even maximizing nerve axon regeneration may not lead to restoration of sight because nerves from each eye ..
  63. Early Detection of Glaucoma Using Raman Spectroscopy
    Tatjana Lazic; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..success because: 1) A detailed characterization of biochemical Raman spectra in the canine nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head and retinal ganglion cells in retinal tissue sections has been performed, and demonstrated that ..
  64. Targeting Muller Cells to Treat Optic Nerve Injury
    Sherry Ball; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Title: Targeting Muller Cells to Treat Optic Nerve Injury Principal Investigator: Sherry L...
  65. Functional Restoration of the Optic Nerve After Disease or Damage
    Dong Feng Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..approaches of neuroanatomy, cellular biology and mouse behavior tests to probe for mechanisms regulating optic nerve regeneration and restoring vision after injury or diseases...
  66. OPTIC NEUROPATHY FROM MITOCHONDRIAL DERANGEMENT
    Alfredo Sadun; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION: A recent epidemic of optic nerve blindness affecting 50,000 people in Cuba was successfully treated through vitamin therapy...
  67. PHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF OPTIC NERVE DISEASE
    P King Smith; Fiscal Year: 1991
    The main aim is the evaluation and application of a model of optic nerve diseases which assumes that there are four major systems of axons in the optic nerve, which may be selectively damaged by certain diseases...
  68. Polymer Constructs for Axon Regeneration in the Central Nervous System
    Rebecca Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor via an engineered construct will enhance nerve regeneration in an optic nerve axotomy model...
  69. Development of an Orbital Endoscope for Neuroprotection
    Louise Mawn; Fiscal Year: 2003
    DESCRIPTION: (Applicant's Abstract) Current treatment modalities for optic nerve related blindness focus on topical drug application to lower intra-ocular pressure, systemic anti-inflammatory/immune suppression with steroids, or ..
  70. PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    ROBERT RODIECK; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Visual information is carried from eye to brain by retinal ganglion cells, whose fibers form the optic nerve. Different types of ganglion cells receive messages about the visual world via the various types of amacrine cells and bipolar ..