- Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes
UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
Nature 459:657-62. 2009
..cell wall, secreted and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly resulting from recent recombination ..
- The small RNA chaperone Hfq and multiple small RNAs control quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae
Derrick H Lenz
Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Cell 118:69-82. 2004
..We propose that Hfq, together with these sRNAs, creates an ultrasensitive regulatory switch that controls the critical transition into the high cell density, quorum-sensing mode...
- Coronatine promotes Pseudomonas syringae virulence in plants by activating a signaling cascade that inhibits salicylic acid accumulation
Xiao yu Zheng
Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Cell Host Microbe 11:587-96. 2012
..We examined the mechanisms underlying coronatine-mediated virulence and show that coronatine activates three homologous NAC transcription factor (TF) genes, ANAC019, ANAC055, and ..
- Complete genome sequence of a virulent isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae
The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
Science 293:498-506. 2001
..Comparative genome hybridization with DNA arrays revealed strain differences in S. pneumoniae that could contribute to differences in virulence and antigenicity.
- A CRISPR/Cas system mediates bacterial innate immune evasion and virulence
Timothy R Sampson
Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Program, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
Nature 497:254-7. 2013
..novicida to dampen this host response and promote virulence. Because Cas9 proteins are highly enriched in pathogenic and commensal bacteria, our work indicates that CRISPR/..
- Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus
William C Nierman
The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
Nature 438:1151-6. 2005
..The Af293 genome sequence provides an unparalleled resource for the future understanding of this remarkable fungus...
- The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease
Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
Nat Rev Microbiol 6:288-301. 2008
..Through a combination of virulence-factor activity and an ability to evade the early components of the host immune response, this organism can ..
- Rapid and simple determination of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic group
Laboratoire d études de génétique bactérienne dans les infections de l enfant EA3105, Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
Appl Environ Microbiol 66:4555-8. 2000
..The method, which uses a combination of two genes (chuA and yjaA) and an anonymous DNA fragment, was tested with 230 strains and showed excellent correlation with reference methods...
- Insights from the genome of the biotrophic fungal plant pathogen Ustilago maydis
Department of Organismic Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Karl von Frisch Strasse, D 35043 Marburg, Germany
Nature 444:97-101. 2006
..This basidiomycete fungus does not use aggressive virulence strategies to kill its host. U...
- Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis
J P Latge
Laboratoire des Aspergillus, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France
Clin Microbiol Rev 12:310-50. 1999
- Plants have a sensitive perception system for the most conserved domain of bacterial flagellin
Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland
Plant J 18:265-76. 1999
The flagellum is an important virulence factor for bacteria pathogenic to animals and plants...
- The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium difficile infection
Sarah A Kuehne
Clostridia Research Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
Nature 467:711-3. 2010
..During infection, C. difficile produces two key virulence determinants, toxin A and toxin B...
- The multidrug-resistant human pathogen Clostridium difficile has a highly mobile, mosaic genome
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK
Nat Genet 38:779-86. 2006
..difficile of an extensive array of genes involved in antimicrobial resistance, virulence, host interaction and the production of surface structures...
- A signaling network reciprocally regulates genes associated with acute infection and chronic persistence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Andrew L Goodman
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Dev Cell 7:745-54. 2004
..We identified a gene whose inactivation results in attenuation of virulence due to premature activation of genes involved in biofilm formation and coordinate repression of genes required ..
- Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:1528-33. 2006
..Using Dictyostelium discoideum as a model host, we have identified a virulence mechanism in a non-O1/non-O139 V...
- The role of Hfq in bacterial pathogens
RNA Biology Group, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany
Curr Opin Microbiol 13:24-33. 2010
The ubiquitous RNA-binding protein, Hfq, has been shown to be required for the fitness and virulence of an increasing number of bacterial pathogens...
- Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on lipoamide dehydrogenase, a member of three multienzyme complexes
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
Cell Host Microbe 9:21-31. 2011
..Mtb deficient in both DlaT and PdhC phenocopies Lpd-deficient Mtb. Thus, Mtb critically requires BCKADH along with PDH and PNR/P for pathogenesis. These findings position Lpd as a potential target for anti-infectives against Mtb...
- A dynamic and intricate regulatory network determines Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 41:1-20. 2013
..The critical traits contributing to the pathogenic potential of P. aeruginosa are the production of a myriad of virulence factors, formation of biofilms and antibiotic resistance...
- Evolutionary dynamics of Clostridium difficile over short and long time scales
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7527-32. 2010
..difficile as a human pathogen is unclear. Whole genome sequencing was used to analyze genetic variation and virulence of a diverse collection of thirty C...
- An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile
L Clifford McDonald
Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
N Engl J Med 353:2433-41. 2005
..difficile with increased virulence, resistance, or both.
- Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public health management
D T Dennis
Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
JAMA 285:2763-73. 2001
..The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense has developed consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals if tularemia is used as a biological weapon against a civilian population...
- Virulence and immunomodulatory roles of bacterial outer membrane vesicles
Terri N Ellis
Box 3711, Biochemistry Department, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 74:81-94. 2010
..Strong experimental evidence exists to categorize OM vesicle production as a type of Gram-negative bacterial virulence factor...
- A fine scale phenotype-genotype virulence map of a bacterial pathogen
Tim van Opijnen
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
Genome Res 22:2541-51. 2012
..are involved in differential carbon source utilization in the host, as well as genes that are involved both in virulence and in resistance against specific in vitro stresses, thereby revealing selection pressures that the pathogen ..
- Genomic islands: tools of bacterial horizontal gene transfer and evolution
Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Nuffield Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
FEMS Microbiol Rev 33:376-93. 2009
..of bacteria as they are involved in the dissemination of variable genes, including antibiotic resistance and virulence genes leading to generation of hospital 'superbugs', as well as catabolic genes leading to formation of new ..
- A sterol-regulatory element binding protein is required for cell polarity, hypoxia adaptation, azole drug resistance, and virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus
Sven D Willger
Department of Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA
PLoS Pathog 4:e1000200. 2008
..Currently, whether hypoxia adaptation is an important virulence attribute of opportunistic pathogenic molds is unknown...
- Characterisation of the Escherichia coli strain associated with an outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, 2011: a microbiological study
Institute for Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory for Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
Lancet Infect Dis 11:671-6. 2011
..We analysed virulence profiles and relevant phenotypes of outbreak isolates recovered in our laboratory.
- A single positively selected West Nile viral mutation confers increased virogenesis in American crows
Aaron C Brault
Center for Vector Borne Diseases and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
Nat Genet 39:1162-6. 2007
..the introduction of a T249P amino acid substitution in the NS3 helicase (found in North American WNV) in a low-virulence strain was sufficient to generate a phenotype highly virulent to AMCRs...
- Systematic screens of a Candida albicans homozygous deletion library decouple morphogenetic switching and pathogenicity
Suzanne M Noble
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
Nat Genet 42:590-8. 2010
..isogenic null mutants of this diploid organism, which requires sequential gene targeting, allows dissection of virulence mechanisms. Published analyses of such mutants show a near-perfect correlation between C...
- Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V cholerae
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
Lancet 361:743-9. 2003
..The organism is phylogenetically close to V cholerae, the causative agent of cholera...
- Targeting virulence: a new paradigm for antimicrobial therapy
Anne E Clatworthy
Department of Molecular Biology and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge St, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
Nat Chem Biol 3:541-8. 2007
..like conventional antibiotics, an alternative approach is to target functions essential for infection, such as virulence factors required to cause host damage and disease...
- Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak
James A Fraser
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Nature 437:1360-4. 2005
..This has implications for the emergence of other microbial pathogens and inbreeding in host range expansion in the fungal and other kingdoms...
- Basis of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Annu Rev Microbiol 64:143-62. 2010
..The basis of their success is the combination of methicillin resistance at low fitness cost and high virulence. Investigation of the virulence potential of CA-MRSA, a key prerequisite for the development of anti-CA-MRSA ..
- Biological and biomedical implications of the co-evolution of pathogens and their hosts
Mark E J Woolhouse
Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
Nat Genet 32:569-77. 2002
- Epidemiology, genetics, and ecology of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae
S M Faruque
Molecular Genetics Laboratory, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62:1301-14. 1998
..cholerae strains and genetic elements that mediate the transfer of virulence genes. The ecosystem comprising V...
- Comparative genome and phenotypic analysis of Clostridium difficile 027 strains provides insight into the evolution of a hypervirulent bacterium
Richard A Stabler
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
Genome Biol 10:R102. 2009
..difficile (CD196), a recent epidemic and hypervirulent 027 (R20291) and a previously sequenced PCR-ribotype 012 strain (630)...
- Quinolone signaling in the cell-to-cell communication system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
E C Pesci
Department of Microbiology, East Carolina University School of Medicine, Greenville, NC 27858, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:11229-34. 1999
..aeruginosa virulence genes. We report here that P...
- Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion
Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Cell 126:969-80. 2006
..To circumvent this innate immune response, plant pathogenic bacteria have evolved specific virulence factors to effectively cause stomatal reopening as an important pathogenesis strategy...
- Transcriptional response of Candida albicans upon internalization by macrophages
Michael C Lorenz
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Eukaryot Cell 3:1076-87. 2004
- Comparative analysis of USA300 virulence determinants in a rabbit model of skin and soft tissue infection
Scott D Kobayashi
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, and Bethesda, Maryland, USA
J Infect Dis 204:937-41. 2011
..rabbits to test the hypothesis that PVL contributes to USA300 pathogenesis and compare it with well-established virulence determinants: alpha-hemolysin (Hla), phenol-soluble modulin-alpha peptides (PSMα), and accessory gene regulator ..
- ChLae1 and ChVel1 regulate T-toxin production, virulence, oxidative stress response, and development of the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus
Dept of Plant Pathology and Plant Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
PLoS Pathog 8:e1002542. 2012
..Produced by race T, T-toxin promotes high virulence to maize carrying Texas male sterile cytoplasm (T-cms)...
- P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing systems and virulence
Roger S Smith
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Curr Opin Microbiol 6:56-60. 2003
..the absence of one or more components of the quorum-sensing system results in a significant reduction in virulence. Recent advances in the past year have demonstrated that the quorum-sensing signal molecule 3O-C(12)-HSL is also ..
- Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms
M C Maiden
Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:3140-5. 1998
- The multiple signaling systems regulating virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pol Nadal Jimenez
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras, Portugal
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 76:46-65. 2012
..In several pathogens, this process triggers the production of virulence factors and/or a switch in bacterial lifestyle that is a major determining factor in the outcome and severity of ..
- Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:3129-34. 2002
The production of virulence factors including cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is strongly influenced by environmental conditions...
- Variation in virulence among clades of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with disease outbreaks
Shannon D Manning
Microbial Evolution Laboratory, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4868-73. 2008
..as defined by higher hemolytic uremic syndrome and hospitalization frequencies, suggesting that increased virulence has evolved...
- RIN4 interacts with Pseudomonas syringae type III effector molecules and is required for RPM1-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis
Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Cell 108:743-54. 2002
..This may enhance RIN4 activity as a negative regulator of plant defense, facilitating pathogen growth. RPM1 may "guard" against pathogens that use AvrRpm1 and AvrB to manipulate RIN4 activity...
- Virulence-associated substitution D222G in the hemagglutinin of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus affects receptor binding
Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands
J Virol 84:11802-13. 2010
..pdmH1N1 with D222G caused ocular disease in mice without further indications of enhanced virulence in mice and ferrets...
- The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system displays antimicrobial properties
Dana L MacIntyre
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2H7
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19520-4. 2010
..cholerae and is used by this organism to confer virulence toward phagocytic eukaryotes, such as J774 murine macrophages and Dictyostelium discoideum...
- Adaptation of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice
Natalia A Ilyushina
Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 3678, USA
J Virol 84:8607-16. 2010
..To address this problem, we assessed the genetic basis for increased virulence of A/CA/04/09 (H1N1) and A/TN/1-560/09 (H1N1) isolates, which are not lethal for mice, in a new mammalian host ..
- A Yersinia effector protein promotes virulence by preventing inflammasome recognition of the type III secretion system
Igor E Brodsky
Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Cell Host Microbe 7:376-87. 2010
Bacterial pathogens utilize pore-forming toxins or specialized secretion systems to deliver virulence factors to modulate host cell physiology and promote bacterial replication...
- Toxin B is essential for virulence of Clostridium difficile
Australian Bacterial Pathogenesis Program, Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
Nature 458:1176-9. 2009
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitals worldwide, because of its virulence, spore-forming ability and persistence. C...
- sigmaB modulates virulence determinant expression and stress resistance: characterization of a functional rsbU strain derived from Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4
Malcolm J Horsburgh
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, England S10 2TN
J Bacteriol 184:5457-67. 2002
..general stress response that is thought to be important for Staphylococcus aureus survival and may contribute to virulence. The strain of choice for genetic studies, 8325-4, carries a small deletion in rsbU, which encodes a positive ..
- Genome sequence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7
N T Perna
Genome Center of Wisconsin, and Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
Nature 409:529-33. 2001
..These include candidate virulence factors, alternative metabolic capacities, several prophages and other new functions--all of which could be ..
- Virulence factors of Yersinia pestis are overcome by a strong lipopolysaccharide response
Sara W Montminy
Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
Nat Immunol 7:1066-73. 2006
..To address the effect of weak TLR4 stimulation on virulence, we modified Y. pestis to produce a potent TLR4-stimulating LPS. Modified Y...
- Phosphorylation of mouse immunity-related GTPase (IRG) resistance proteins is an evasion strategy for virulent Toxoplasma gondii
Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
PLoS Biol 8:e1000576. 2010
b>Virulence of complex pathogens in mammals is generally determined by multiple components of the pathogen interacting with the functional complexity and multiple layering of the mammalian immune system...
- Identification of a pathogenicity island required for Salmonella survival in host cells
Department of Biology, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:7800-4. 1996
We have identified a region unique to the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome that is essential for virulence in mice...
- Horizontal gene transfer of the secretome drives the evolution of bacterial cooperation and virulence
Institut Pasteur, CNRS, URA, Paris, France
Curr Biol 19:1683-91. 2009
..behaviors, secreting shared proteins that are essential for foraging, shelter, microbial warfare, and virulence. These proteins are costly, rendering populations of cooperators vulnerable to exploitation by nonproducing ..
- Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA
Department of Bacteriology, Juntendo University, 2 1 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan
Lancet 359:1819-27. 2002
..By contrast with hospital-acquired MRSA, community-acquired MRSA is more susceptible to non b-lactam antibiotics. We investigated the high virulence potential of certain strains of this bacterium.
- Virulence evolution and the trade-off hypothesis: history, current state of affairs and the future
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Queen s University, Kingston, Canada
J Evol Biol 22:245-59. 2009
..The trade-off hypothesis states that virulence is an unavoidable consequence of parasite transmission; however, since the 1990s, this hypothesis has been ..
- The cluster 1 type VI secretion system is a major virulence determinant in Burkholderia pseudomallei
Mary N Burtnick
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688, USA
Infect Immun 79:1512-25. 2011
..We also constructed six hcp deletion mutants (Δhcp1 through Δhcp6) and tested them for virulence in the Syrian hamster model of infection...
- Polymorphonuclear leukocytes mediate Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin-induced lung inflammation and injury
Binh An Diep
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5587-92. 2010
..Therefore, we developed a rabbit model of necrotizing pneumonia to compare the virulence of a USA300 wild-type strain with that of isogenic PVL-deletion mutant and -complemented strains...
- Evolution of virulence in epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5883-8. 2009
..into the evolution of the exceptional potential of USA300 to cause disease, we compared the phylogeny and virulence of USA300 with that of closely related MRSA clones...
- A multifunctional mannosyltransferase family in Candida albicans determines cell wall mannan structure and host-fungus interactions
Hector M Mora-Montes
School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
J Biol Chem 285:12087-95. 2010
..We showed previously that Mnt1 and Mnt2 are involved in O-linked mannosylation and are required for virulence. Here, the role of C...
- Protein secretion systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A wealth of pathogenic weapons
CNRS, Aix Marseille Universite, Institut de Microbiologie de la Mediterranee, France
Int J Med Microbiol 300:534-43. 2010
..Unfortunately, they can cope with it and have evolved a number of complex secretion systems, which direct virulence factors either at the bacterial cell surface into the environmental extracellular milieu or into the host cell ..
- The PB2 subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase affects virulence by interacting with the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein and inhibiting expression of beta interferon
Katy M Graef
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3203, USA
J Virol 84:8433-45. 2010
The PB2 subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase is a major virulence determinant of influenza viruses. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown...
- A new influenza virus virulence determinant: the NS1 protein four C-terminal residues modulate pathogenicity
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4381-6. 2008
The virulence of influenza virus is a multigenic trait. One determinant of virulence is the multifunctional NS1 protein that functions in several ways to defeat the cellular innate immune response...
- Autoinduction and signal transduction in the regulation of staphylococcal virulence
Richard P Novick
Program in Molecular Pathogenesis, Skirball Institute, Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 10016, USA
Mol Microbiol 48:1429-49. 2003
..internal metabolic machinery of the cell, in order to achieve the production of particular subsets of accessory/virulence factors at the time and in quantities that are appropriate to the needs of the organism at any given location...
- The population genetics of commensal Escherichia coli
INSERM U722 and Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris 75018, France
Nat Rev Microbiol 8:207-17. 2010
..coli is shaped by multiple host and environmental factors, and the determinants involved in the virulence of the bacteria may in fact reflect adaptation to commensal habitats...
- Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains evade apoptosis of infected alveolar macrophages
Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston MA 02118, USA
J Immunol 164:2016-20. 2000
..The present study compared AMphi apoptosis following infection by M. tuberculosis complex strains of differing virulence and by Mycobacterium kansasii. Avirulent or attenuated bacilli (M...
- The arginine catabolic mobile element and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec linkage: convergence of virulence and resistance in the USA300 clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Binh An Diep
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco 94110, USA
J Infect Dis 197:1523-30. 2008
..These data are consistent with a model in which ACME enhances growth and survival of USA300, allowing for genetic "hitchhiking" of SCCmec. SCCmec in turn protects against exposure to beta-lactams...
- Pyrosequencing-based comparative genome analysis of the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium and identification of a large transferable pathogenicity island
Willem van Schaik
Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
BMC Genomics 11:239. 2010
..The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecium is an important cause of nosocomial infections in immunocompromized patients...
- Sub-telomere directed gene expression during initiation of invasive aspergillosis
Department of Microbiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
PLoS Pathog 4:e1000154. 2008
..Recent genome sequencing of several Aspergillus species provides an exceptional opportunity to analyse fungal virulence attributes within a genomic and evolutionary context...
- Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and phytophthora infestans avirulence genes
Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers
Wageningen UR Plant Breeding, Wageningen, The Netherlands
PLoS ONE 3:e2875. 2008
..Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties...
- Vaccinia virus immune evasion: mechanisms, virulence and immunogenicity
Geoffrey L Smith
Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
J Gen Virol 94:2367-92. 2013
..In this review, these VACV immunomodulatory proteins are described and the potential to create more immunogenic VACV strains by manipulation of the gene encoding these proteins is discussed...
- Distinctive expansion of potential virulence genes in the genome of the oomycete fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica
Rays H Y Jiang
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Genet 9:e1003272. 2013
- Iron availability and infection
Eugene D Weinberg
Department of Biology and Program in Medical Sciences Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, IN 47405 USA
Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:600-5. 2009
..To successfully sustain an infection, nearly all bacteria, fungi and protozoa require a continuous supply of host iron...
- SreA-mediated iron regulation in Aspergillus fumigatus
Divisions of Molecular Biology Biocenter, Medical University Innsbruck, Fritz Pregl Str 3, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Mol Microbiol 70:27-43. 2008
..Siderophore biosynthesis, which is essential for virulence, is repressed by iron. Here we show that this control is mediated by the GATA factor SreA...
- Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11064-9. 2005
..are unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely to contribute to virulence and host specificity...
- Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
Acambis Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
Lancet 366:1079-84. 2005
Toxins A and B are the primary virulence factors of Clostridium difficile. Since 2002, an epidemic of C difficile-associated disease with increased morbidity and mortality has been present in Quebec province, Canada...
- Calcineurin controls drug tolerance, hyphal growth, and virulence in Candida dubliniensis
Ying Lien Chen
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Eukaryot Cell 10:803-19. 2011
..C. dubliniensis calcineurin and crz1/crz1 mutants exhibit attenuated virulence in a murine systemic infection model, likely attributable to defects in cell wall integrity, hyphal growth, and ..
- Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi from agricultural and natural ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their virulence towards thrips and whiteflies
Sergio R Sánchez-Peña
Departamento de Parasitología Agrícola, Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico
J Insect Sci 11:1. 2011
..anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol.
- Expanding fungal pathogenesis: Cryptococcus breaks out of the opportunistic box
James W Kronstad
The Michael Smith Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
Nat Rev Microbiol 9:193-203. 2011
Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, CNRS URA 2172, Institut Pasteur, Paris Cedex 15, France
Annu Rev Microbiol 55:647-71. 2001
..The link between plasmids and major virulence factors of B. anthracis was not discovered until the 1980s...
- An ancestral oomycete locus contains late blight avirulence gene Avr3a, encoding a protein that is recognized in the host cytoplasm
Miles R Armstrong
Plant Pathogen Interactions Programme, Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, DD2 5DA Dundee, UK
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7766-71. 2005
..We suggest that Avr3a has undergone gene duplication and that an allele evading recognition by R3a arose under positive selection...
- Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by quorum sensing inhibitors
BioCentrum DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
EMBO J 22:3803-15. 2003
..The discovery of communication systems (quorum sensing systems) regulating bacterial virulence has afforded a novel opportunity to control infectious bacteria without interfering with growth...
- Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases in virulence and pathogenesis
Julian R Naglik
Department of Oral Medicine, Pathology and Immunology, GKT Dental Institute, Kings College London, London, United Kingdom
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:400-28, table of contents. 2003
..albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of humans and has developed an extensive repertoire of putative virulence mechanisms that allows successful colonization and infection of the host under suitable predisposing conditions...
- Population biology of multihost pathogens
M E Woolhouse
Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
Science 292:1109-12. 2001
..Generalism also has consequences for the evolution of virulence and for pathogen epidemiology, making both much less predictable...
- The ecology of genetically diverse infections
A F Read
Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
Science 292:1099-102. 2001
..Indeed, much of the theory in this area is based on assumptions contradicted by the available data...
- Comparison of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pulsotypes USA300 and USA400 in a rat model of pneumonia
Christopher P Montgomery
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
J Infect Dis 198:561-70. 2008
..The explanation for this shift is unclear. We hypothesized that USA300 must be more pathogenic--specifically, that USA300 would have increased virulence when compared with USA400 in an animal model.
- A trans-acting riboswitch controls expression of the virulence regulator PrfA in Listeria monocytogenes
Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, 90187 Umea, Sweden
Cell 139:770-9. 2009
..SreA and SreB control expression of the virulence regulator PrfA by binding to the 5'-untranslated region of its mRNA...
- Rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance in the emerging zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis
Matthew T G Holden
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom
PLoS ONE 4:e6072. 2009
..suis infections occur sporadically in human Europe and North America, but a recent major outbreak has been described in China with high levels of mortality. The mechanisms of S. suis pathogenesis in humans and pigs are poorly understood...
- Genomic analysis reveals that Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence is combinatorial
Daniel G Lee
Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
Genome Biol 7:R90. 2006
..We therefore sequenced a highly virulent strain of P. aeruginosa, PA14, and compared it with a previously sequenced (and less pathogenic) strain, PAO1, to identify novel virulence genes.
- Multidrug-resistance efflux pumps - not just for resistance
Laura J V Piddock
Antimicrobial Agents Research Group, Division of Immunity and Infection, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Nat Rev Microbiol 4:629-36. 2006
..Here, I present the accumulating evidence that multidrug-resistance efflux pumps have roles in bacterial pathogenicity and propose that these pumps therefore have greater clinical relevance than is usually attributed to them...
- Anti-virulence strategies to combat bacteria-mediated disease
David A Rasko
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
Nat Rev Drug Discov 9:117-28. 2010
..Interference with bacterial virulence and/or cell-to-cell signalling pathways is an especially compelling approach, as it is thought to apply less ..
- RXLR effector reservoir in two Phytophthora species is dominated by a single rapidly evolving superfamily with more than 700 members
Rays H Y Jiang
Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4874-9. 2008
..The superfamily includes all experimentally identified oomycete effector and avirulence genes, and its rapid pace of evolution is consistent with a role for Avh proteins in interaction with plant hosts...
- The glyoxylate cycle is required for fungal virulence
M C Lorenz
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Massachusetts 02142, USA
Nature 412:83-6. 2001
..findings in fungi, in conjunction with reports that isocitrate lyase is both upregulated and required for the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrate the wide-ranging significance of the glyoxylate cycle in microbial ..
- Yersinia pestis--etiologic agent of plague
R D Perry
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536, USA
Clin Microbiol Rev 10:35-66. 1997
..Studies characterizing virulence determinants of Y. pestis have identified novel mechanisms for overcoming host defenses...
- Structure and dynamics of the pan-genome of Streptococcus pneumoniae and closely related species
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
Genome Biol 11:R107. 2010
..Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important causes of microbial diseases in humans. The genomes of 44 diverse strains of S. pneumoniae were analyzed and compared with strains of non-pathogenic streptococci of the Mitis group...
- Nonfilamentous C. albicans mutants are avirulent
H J Lo
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02142, USA
Cell 90:939-49. 1997
..This Candida cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1 double mutant, locked in the yeast form, is avirulent in a mouse model...
- Importance of toxin A, toxin B, and CDT in virulence of an epidemic Clostridium difficile strain
Sarah A Kuehne
Clostridia Research Group, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
J Infect Dis 209:83-6. 2014
..In addition to the main virulence factors toxin A and B, epidemic, PCR Ribotype 027 strains, such as R20291, produce a third toxin, CDT...
- Identification of novel cytolytic peptides as key virulence determinants for community-associated MRSA
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, US National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
Nat Med 13:1510-4. 2007
..Our study reveals a previously uncharacterized set of S. aureus virulence factors that account at least in part for the enhanced virulence of CA-MRSA.