rna editing

Summary

Summary: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).

Top Publications

  1. pmc Functions and regulation of RNA editing by ADAR deaminases
    Kazuko Nishikura
    Department of Gene Expression and Regulation, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 4268, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 79:321-49. 2010
  2. ncbi Comprehensive analysis of RNA-Seq data reveals extensive RNA editing in a human transcriptome
    Zhiyu Peng
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China
    Nat Biotechnol 30:253-60. 2012
  3. pmc Redirection of silencing targets by adenosine-to-inosine editing of miRNAs
    Yukio Kawahara
    Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 315:1137-40. 2007
  4. ncbi Genome-wide identification of human RNA editing sites by parallel DNA capturing and sequencing
    Jin Billy Li
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 324:1210-3. 2009
  5. pmc Identifying RNA editing sites using RNA sequencing data alone
    Gokul Ramaswami
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    Nat Methods 10:128-32. 2013
  6. pmc A-to-I RNA editing: effects on proteins key to neural excitability
    Joshua J C Rosenthal
    Institute of Neurobiology and Department of Biochemistry, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00901, USA
    Neuron 74:432-9. 2012
  7. ncbi The evolution of RNA editing and pentatricopeptide repeat genes
    Sota Fujii
    Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA, Australia
    New Phytol 191:37-47. 2011
  8. pmc Accurate identification of A-to-I RNA editing in human by transcriptome sequencing
    Jae Hoon Bahn
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Genome Res 22:142-50. 2012
  9. pmc Altered nuclear retention of mRNAs containing inverted repeats in human embryonic stem cells: functional role of a nuclear noncoding RNA
    Ling Ling Chen
    Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, University of Connecticut Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030 3301, USA
    Mol Cell 35:467-78. 2009
  10. pmc Structural dynamics of the aminoacylation and proofreading functional cycle of bacterial leucyl-tRNA synthetase
    Andres Palencia
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory EMBL, Grenoble Outstation and Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions, University of Grenoble EMBL Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Grenoble, France
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:677-84. 2012

Detail Information

Publications330 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Functions and regulation of RNA editing by ADAR deaminases
    Kazuko Nishikura
    Department of Gene Expression and Regulation, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 4268, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 79:321-49. 2010
    One type of RNA editing converts adenosines to inosines (A-->I editing) in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrates. A-->I RNA editing is mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes...
  2. ncbi Comprehensive analysis of RNA-Seq data reveals extensive RNA editing in a human transcriptome
    Zhiyu Peng
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China
    Nat Biotechnol 30:253-60. 2012
    b>RNA editing is a post-transcriptional event that recodes hereditary information...
  3. pmc Redirection of silencing targets by adenosine-to-inosine editing of miRNAs
    Yukio Kawahara
    Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 315:1137-40. 2007
    Primary transcripts of certain microRNA (miRNA) genes are subject to RNA editing that converts adenosine to inosine. However, the importance of miRNA editing remains largely undetermined...
  4. ncbi Genome-wide identification of human RNA editing sites by parallel DNA capturing and sequencing
    Jin Billy Li
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 324:1210-3. 2009
    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing leads to transcriptome diversity and is important for normal brain function. To date, only a handful of functional sites have been identified in mammals...
  5. pmc Identifying RNA editing sites using RNA sequencing data alone
    Gokul Ramaswami
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    Nat Methods 10:128-32. 2013
    We show that RNA editing sites can be called with high confidence using RNA sequencing data from multiple samples across either individuals or species, without the need for matched genomic DNA sequence...
  6. pmc A-to-I RNA editing: effects on proteins key to neural excitability
    Joshua J C Rosenthal
    Institute of Neurobiology and Department of Biochemistry, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00901, USA
    Neuron 74:432-9. 2012
    b>RNA editing by adenosine deamination is a process used to diversify the proteome. The expression of ADARs, the editing enzymes, is ubiquitous among true metazoans, and so adenosine deamination is thought to be universal...
  7. ncbi The evolution of RNA editing and pentatricopeptide repeat genes
    Sota Fujii
    Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA, Australia
    New Phytol 191:37-47. 2011
    ..we will summarize our current knowledge about the evolution of PPR genes, and will discuss the relevance of the dramatic expansion in the family to the functional diversification of plant organelles, focusing primarily on RNA editing.
  8. pmc Accurate identification of A-to-I RNA editing in human by transcriptome sequencing
    Jae Hoon Bahn
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Genome Res 22:142-50. 2012
    b>RNA editing enhances the diversity of gene products at the post-transcriptional level...
  9. pmc Altered nuclear retention of mRNAs containing inverted repeats in human embryonic stem cells: functional role of a nuclear noncoding RNA
    Ling Ling Chen
    Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, University of Connecticut Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030 3301, USA
    Mol Cell 35:467-78. 2009
    ..Taken together, these results assign a biological function to a large noncoding nuclear RNA in the regulation of mRNA export...
  10. pmc Structural dynamics of the aminoacylation and proofreading functional cycle of bacterial leucyl-tRNA synthetase
    Andres Palencia
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory EMBL, Grenoble Outstation and Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions, University of Grenoble EMBL Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Grenoble, France
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:677-84. 2012
    ..Our results give new insight into the structural dynamics of a molecular machine that is essential for accurate protein synthesis...
  11. ncbi Systematic identification of abundant A-to-I editing sites in the human transcriptome
    Erez Y Levanon
    Compugen Ltd, 72 Pinchas Rosen St, Tel Aviv 69512, Israel
    Nat Biotechnol 22:1001-5. 2004
    b>RNA editing by members of the ADAR (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) family leads to site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) in precursor messenger RNAs...
  12. pmc Accurate identification of human Alu and non-Alu RNA editing sites
    Gokul Ramaswami
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, California, USA
    Nat Methods 9:579-81. 2012
    We developed a computational framework to robustly identify RNA editing sites using transcriptome and genome deep-sequencing data from the same individual...
  13. pmc Large-scale mRNA sequencing determines global regulation of RNA editing during brain development
    Helene Wahlstedt
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    Genome Res 19:978-86. 2009
    b>RNA editing by adenosine deamination has been shown to generate multiple isoforms of several neural receptors, often with profound effects on receptor function...
  14. pmc Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA induce reproducible changes in abundance and sequence of embryonic miRNAs
    Cornelia Vesely
    Department of Chromosome Biology, Max F Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Genome Res 22:1468-76. 2012
    ..Inosines are recognized as guanosines, and, hence, RNA editing alters the sequence information but also structure of RNAs...
  15. pmc Widespread A-to-I RNA editing of Alu-containing mRNAs in the human transcriptome
    Alekos Athanasiadis
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:e391. 2004
    b>RNA editing by adenosine deamination generates RNA and protein diversity through the posttranscriptional modification of single nucleotides in RNA sequences...
  16. ncbi Class switch recombination and hypermutation require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a potential RNA editing enzyme
    M Muramatsu
    Department of Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Japan
    Cell 102:553-63. 2000
    ..These results suggest that AID may be involved in regulation or catalysis of the DNA modification step of both class switching and somatic hypermutation...
  17. ncbi A-to-I RNA editing: the "ADAR" side of human cancer
    Federica Galeano
    RNA editing Laboratory, Oncohaematology Department, IRCCS Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Rome, Italy
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 23:244-50. 2012
    ..Recently, post-transcriptional modification events, such as RNA editing, are emerging as new players in several human diseases, including tumours...
  18. pmc RNA editing in the human ENCODE RNA-seq data
    Eddie Park
    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, USA
    Genome Res 22:1626-33. 2012
    ..data can be mined for sequence differences relative to the reference genome to identify both genomic SNPs and RNA editing events...
  19. ncbi An anthropoid-specific locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22
    Adam Jarmuz
    RNA Editing Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 ONN, UK
    Genomics 79:285-96. 2002
    ..Tissue-specific expression of these genes in a variety of cell lines, along with other evidence, suggests a role for these enzymes in growth or cell cycle control...
  20. pmc Elucidation of the RNA recognition code for pentatricopeptide repeat proteins involved in organelle RNA editing in plants
    Yusuke Yagi
    Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    PLoS ONE 8:e57286. 2013
    ..Here, we show the principle underlying RNA recognition for PPR proteins involved in RNA editing. The distance between the PPR-RNA alignment and the editable C was shown to be conserved...
  21. ncbi DARNED: a DAtabase of RNa EDiting in humans
    Anmol Kiran
    Biochemistry Department, University College Cork, Ireland
    Bioinformatics 26:1772-6. 2010
    b>RNA editing is a phenomenon, which is responsible for the alteration of particular nucleotides in RNA sequences relative to their genomic templates...
  22. pmc Frequency and fate of microRNA editing in human brain
    Yukio Kawahara
    The Wistar Institute
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:5270-80. 2008
    Primary transcripts of certain microRNA (miRNA) genes (pri-miRNAs) are subject to RNA editing that converts adenosine to inosine (A-->I RNA editing)...
  23. pmc Insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genome size from complete sequences of Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae)
    Andrew J Alverson
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 27:1436-48. 2010
    ..zucchini: 982,833 nt)--the two smallest characterized cucurbit mitochondrial genomes--and determined their RNA editing content...
  24. pmc High levels of RNA-editing site conservation amongst 15 laboratory mouse strains
    Petr Danecek
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1HH, UK
    Genome Biol 13:26. 2012
    ..Recently the Mouse Genomes Project generated genome sequences for 17 laboratory mouse strains and rich catalogues of variants. We also generated RNA-seq data from whole brain RNA from 15 of the sequenced strains...
  25. pmc A distant cis acting intronic element induces site-selective RNA editing
    Chammiran Daniel
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University, Svante Arrheniusväg 20C, SE 10691, Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:9876-86. 2012
    ..In human, thousands of genes are edited in duplexes formed by inverted repeats in non-coding regions. It is likely that numerous such duplexes can induce editing of coding regions throughout the transcriptome...
  26. ncbi Broad antiretroviral defence by human APOBEC3G through lethal editing of nascent reverse transcripts
    Bastien Mangeat
    Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Nature 424:99-103. 2003
    ..We also find that APOBEC3G can act on a broad range of retroviruses in addition to HIV, suggesting that hypermutation by editing is a general innate defence mechanism against this important group of pathogens...
  27. pmc RNA editing of the microRNA-151 precursor blocks cleavage by the Dicer-TRBP complex
    Yukio Kawahara
    The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    EMBO Rep 8:763-9. 2007
    ..Certain pri-miRNAs are subject to RNA editing that converts adenosine to inosine (A --> I RNA editing); however, the fate of edited pri-miRNAs is mostly ..
  28. pmc Predicting sites of ADAR editing in double-stranded RNA
    Julie M Eggington
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah, 15 N Medical Drive East, Room 4800, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    Nat Commun 2:319. 2011
    ..The predictive power of the algorithm on fully base-paired dsRNA, compared with biological substrates containing mismatches, bulges and loops, elucidates structural contributions to editing specificity...
  29. pmc Multiple organellar RNA editing factor (MORF) family proteins are required for RNA editing in mitochondria and plastids of plants
    Mizuki Takenaka
    Molekulare Botanik, Universitat Ulm, 89069 Ulm, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:5104-9. 2012
    b>RNA editing in plastids and mitochondria of flowering plants changes hundreds of selected cytidines to uridines, mostly in coding regions of mRNAs...
  30. ncbi ADARs: allies or enemies? The importance of A-to-I RNA editing in human disease: from cancer to HIV-1
    Angela Gallo
    RNA editing Laboratory, Oncohaematology Department, IRCCS, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu, Rome, Italy
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 87:95-110. 2012
    ..Moreover, it has been shown that modulation of RNA editing is important for cell proliferation and migration, and has a protective effect on ischaemic insults...
  31. pmc Widespread RNA editing of embedded alu elements in the human transcriptome
    Dennis D Y Kim
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Genome Res 14:1719-25. 2004
    ..Therefore, Alu-associated RNA editing may be a mechanism for marking nonstandard transcripts, not destined for translation.
  32. pmc Identification of widespread ultra-edited human RNAs
    Shai Carmi
    The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002317. 2011
    Adenosine-to-inosine modification of RNA molecules (A-to-I RNA editing) is an important mechanism that increases transciptome diversity. It occurs when a genomically encoded adenosine (A) is converted to an inosine (I) by ADAR proteins...
  33. pmc Fine-tuning serotonin2c receptor function in the brain: molecular and functional implications
    Kelly A Berg
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    Neuropharmacology 55:969-76. 2008
    ..receptors, which possesses unique molecular and pharmacological properties such as constitutive activity and RNA editing. The 5-HT(2C)R is widely expressed within the central nervous system, where is thought to play a major role in ..
  34. pmc A-to-I RNA editing and human disease
    Stefan Maas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA
    RNA Biol 3:1-9. 2006
    The post-transcriptional modification of mammalian transcripts by A-to-I RNA editing has been recognized as an important mechanism for the generation of molecular diversity and also regulates protein function through recoding of genomic ..
  35. pmc Systematic identification of edited microRNAs in the human brain
    Shahar Alon
    Department of Neurobiology, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Genome Res 22:1533-40. 2012
    ..Similar results are obtained for publicly available data sets of mouse brain-regions tissues. Thus, we find that A-to-I editing does alter several miRNAs, but it is not widespread...
  36. pmc Extensive loss of translational genes in the structurally dynamic mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Silene latifolia
    Daniel B Sloan
    Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 10:274. 2010
    ..The Caryophyllaceae represents one lineage that has experienced a particularly high rate of mitochondrial gene loss relative to other angiosperms...
  37. ncbi Regulating gene expression through RNA nuclear retention
    Kannanganattu V Prasanth
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA
    Cell 123:249-63. 2005
    ..This mechanism of action highlights an important paradigm for the role of a nuclear-retained stable RNA transcript in regulating gene expression...
  38. pmc Altered adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in human cancer
    Nurit Paz
    Cancer Research Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
    Genome Res 17:1586-95. 2007
    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was recently shown to be abundant in the human transcriptome, affecting thousands of genes...
  39. pmc Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are both antiviral and proviral
    Charles E Samuel
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Virology 411:180-93. 2011
    A-to-I RNA editing, the deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) that occurs in regions of RNA with double-stranded character, is catalyzed by a family of Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs)...
  40. pmc Editing independent effects of ADARs on the miRNA/siRNA pathways
    Bret S E Heale
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    EMBO J 28:3145-56. 2009
    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are best known for altering the coding sequences of mRNA through RNA editing, as in the GluR-B Q/R site...
  41. ncbi Mutational evolution in a lobular breast tumour profiled at single nucleotide resolution
    Sohrab P Shah
    Molecular Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver V5Z 1L3, Canada
    Nature 461:809-13. 2009
    ..Taken together, our data show that single nucleotide mutational heterogeneity can be a property of low or intermediate grade primary breast cancers and that significant evolution can occur with disease progression...
  42. ncbi Evolutionary origin of RNA editing
    Michael W Gray
    Centre for Comparative Genomics and Evolutionary Bioinformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3M 4R2, Canada
    Biochemistry 51:5235-42. 2012
    The term "RNA editing" encompasses a wide variety of mechanistically and phylogenetically unrelated processes that change the nucleotide sequence of an RNA species relative to that of the encoding DNA...
  43. pmc Role of tRNA amino acid-accepting end in aminoacylation and its quality control
    Xiao Long Zhou
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:8857-68. 2011
    ..Collectively, the data show how protein synthesis quality is controlled by the CCA₇₆ homogeneity of tRNAs...
  44. pmc Mice with altered serotonin 2C receptor RNA editing display characteristics of Prader-Willi syndrome
    Michael V Morabito
    Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 39:169-80. 2010
    ..These results not only strengthen the link between the molecular etiology of PWS and altered 5HT(2C) expression, but also demonstrate the importance of normal patterns of 5HT(2C) RNA editing in vivo.
  45. ncbi Down-regulation of RNA editing in pediatric astrocytomas: ADAR2 editing activity inhibits cell migration and proliferation
    Caterina Cenci
    RNA editing Laboratory, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu Research Institute, Piazza S Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
    J Biol Chem 283:7251-60. 2008
    ..events can contribute to the appearance and/or progression of cancer, we investigated whether RNA editing, catalyzed by the ADAR (adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) enzymes, is altered in pediatric astrocytomas...
  46. pmc Complete DNA sequences of the plastid genomes of two parasitic flowering plant species, Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta gronovii
    Helena T Funk
    Department of Cell Biology, Philipps University Marburg, Karl von Frisch Str, D 35032 Marburg, Germany
    BMC Plant Biol 7:45. 2007
    ..reflexa to a restricted photosynthetic activity and degenerated chloroplasts in C. gronovii to an achlorophyllous state in E. virginiana...
  47. pmc Editor meets silencer: crosstalk between RNA editing and RNA interference
    Kazuko Nishikura
    The Wistar Institute, Department of Gene Expression and Regulation, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 4268, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:919-31. 2006
    The most prevalent type of RNA editing is mediated by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes, which convert adenosines to inosines (a process known as A-->I RNA editing) in double-stranded (ds)RNA substrates...
  48. ncbi ADAR2-dependent RNA editing of AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 determines vulnerability of neurons in forebrain ischemia
    Peter L Peng
    Biomolecular Science Center, College of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA
    Neuron 49:719-33. 2006
    ..Direct introduction of the Q/R site edited GluR2 gene, GluR2(R607), rescues ADAR2 degeneration. Thus, ADAR2-dependent GluR2 Q/R site editing determines vulnerability of neurons in the rat hippocampus to forebrain ischemia...
  49. ncbi The fate of dsRNA in the nucleus: a p54(nrb)-containing complex mediates the nuclear retention of promiscuously A-to-I edited RNAs
    Z Zhang
    Department of Microbiology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
    Cell 106:465-75. 2001
    ..We provide evidence that one function of the complex identified here is to anchor hyperedited RNAs to the nuclear matrix, while allowing selectively edited mRNAs to be exported...
  50. pmc The complete nucleotide sequence and RNA editing content of the mitochondrial genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.): comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes of rapeseed and Arabidopsis thaliana
    Hirokazu Handa
    Laboratory of Plant Genecology, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Sapporo 062 8555, Japan
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:5907-16. 2003
    ..b>RNA editing events were systematically investigated on the basis of the sequence of the rapeseed mitochondrial genome...
  51. ncbi RNA editing in regulating gene expression in the brain
    James E C Jepson
    Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, SFH Life Sciences Building, Brown University, 185 Meeting Street, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1779:459-70. 2008
    Adenosine to inosine RNA editing, catalyzed by Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs), represents an evolutionary conserved post-transcriptional mechanism which harnesses RNA structures to produce proteins that are not literally ..
  52. ncbi The complete sequence of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) mitochondrial genome: frequent DNA sequence acquisition and loss during the evolution of flowering plants
    Y Notsu
    Department of Genetic Diversity, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Kannondai 2 1 2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8602, Japan
    Mol Genet Genomics 268:434-45. 2002
    ..Transcription and post-transcriptional modification (RNA editing) in the rice mitochondrial sequence were also examined...
  53. pmc Molecular diversity through RNA editing: a balancing act
    Sanaz Farajollahi
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA
    Trends Genet 26:221-30. 2010
    b>RNA editing by adenosine deamination fuels the generation of RNA and protein diversity in eukaryotes, particularly in higher organisms...
  54. pmc Modulation of microRNA processing and expression through RNA editing by ADAR deaminases
    Weidong Yang
    The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 13:13-21. 2006
    ..Consequently, mature miRNA-142 expression levels increased substantially in ADAR1 null or ADAR2 null mice. Our results demonstrate a new function of RNA editing in the control of miRNA biogenesis.
  55. pmc Inverted Alu dsRNA structures do not affect localization but can alter translation efficiency of human mRNAs independent of RNA editing
    Claire R Capshew
    Medical Sciences Program, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:8637-45. 2012
    ..As inverted Alus are predicted to reside in >5% of human protein-coding genes, these intramolecular dsRNA structures are important regulators of gene expression...
  56. pmc Recoding RNA editing of AZIN1 predisposes to hepatocellular carcinoma
    LeiLei Chen
    Department of Clinical Oncology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Nat Med 19:209-16. 2013
    ..Transcriptome sequencing revealed that adenosine-to-inosine (A→I) RNA editing of AZIN1 (encoding antizyme inhibitor 1) is increased in HCC specimens...
  57. pmc Nascent-seq indicates widespread cotranscriptional RNA editing in Drosophila
    Joseph Rodriguez
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Center for Behavioral Genomics, and Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02451, USA
    Mol Cell 47:27-37. 2012
    The RNA editing enzyme ADAR chemically modifies adenosine (A) to inosine (I), which is interpreted by the ribosome as a guanosine...
  58. pmc Deep annotation of Drosophila melanogaster microRNAs yields insights into their processing, modification, and emergence
    Eugene Berezikov
    Hubrecht Institute, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Genome Res 21:203-15. 2011
    ..Altogether, this study lays a comprehensive foundation for the study of miRNA diversity and evolution in a complex animal model...
  59. ncbi Posttranscriptional recoding by RNA editing
    Stefan Maas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA
    Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 86:193-224. 2012
    ..The molecular mechanism of how the RNA editing machinery and its substrates recognize and interact with each other is not understood well enough to allow for ..
  60. pmc RIP1, a member of an Arabidopsis protein family, interacts with the protein RARE1 and broadly affects RNA editing
    Stephane Bentolila
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E1453-61. 2012
    Transcripts of plant organelle genes are modified by cytidine-to-uridine (C-to-U) RNA editing, often changing the encoded amino acid predicted from the DNA sequence...
  61. pmc Consistent levels of A-to-I RNA editing across individuals in coding sequences and non-conserved Alu repeats
    Shoshana Greenberger
    Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    BMC Genomics 11:608. 2010
    ..However, the variability across human individuals of editing levels in other tissues has not been studied so far...
  62. ncbi Functional disruption of the pentatricopeptide protein SLG1 affects mitochondrial RNA editing, plant development, and responses to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis
    Hui Yuan
    MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Plant J 70:432-44. 2012
    ..The SLG1 gene encodes a PPR protein that is localized in mitochondria. In the slg1 mutant, RNA editing in a single site of the mitochondrial transcript nad3 is abolished...
  63. pmc Canonical A-to-I and C-to-U RNA editing is enriched at 3'UTRs and microRNA target sites in multiple mouse tissues
    Tongjun Gu
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e33720. 2012
    b>RNA editing is a process that modifies RNA nucleotides and changes the efficiency and fidelity of the central dogma. Enzymes that catalyze RNA editing are required for life, and defects in RNA editing are associated with many diseases...
  64. ncbi Mechanistic insight into pentatricopeptide repeat proteins as sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins for organellar RNAs in plants
    Takahiro Nakamura
    Department of Research Superstar Program, Institute of Advanced Study, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581, Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 53:1171-9. 2012
    ..Here, we summarize recent studies addressing the mechanistic aspect of PPR proteins...
  65. ncbi RNA editing by mammalian ADARs
    Marion Hogg
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    Adv Genet 73:87-120. 2011
    The main type of RNA editing in mammals is the conversion of adenosine to inosine which is translated as if it were guanosine...
  66. ncbi Characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of Hevea brasiliensis reveals genome rearrangement, RNA editing sites and phylogenetic relationships
    Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang
    National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand
    Gene 475:104-12. 2011
    ..A comparison between the rubber tree chloroplast genes and cDNA sequences revealed 51 RNA editing sites in which most (48 sites) were located in 26 protein coding genes and the other 3 sites were in introns...
  67. pmc RNA editing of the IQ domain in Ca(v)1.3 channels modulates their Ca²⁺-dependent inactivation
    Hua Huang
    Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School Medicine, National University of Singapore, 117597 Singapore
    Neuron 73:304-16. 2012
    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing is crucial for generating molecular diversity, and serves to regulate protein function through recoding of genomic information. Here, we discover editing within Ca(v)1...
  68. pmc Loss of the imprinted snoRNA mbii-52 leads to increased 5htr2c pre-RNA editing and altered 5HT2CR-mediated behaviour
    Christine M Doe
    Behavioural Genetics Group, Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology School of Medicine and School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 18:2140-8. 2009
    ..These data illustrate, for the first time, the physiological consequences of altered RNA editing of 5htr2c linked to mbii-52 loss that may underlie specific aspects of the complex PWS phenotype and point to ..
  69. pmc A study of new Arabidopsis chloroplast RNA editing mutants reveals general features of editing factors and their target sites
    Kamel Hammani
    Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, University of Western Australia, WA 6009, Crawley, Australia
    Plant Cell 21:3686-99. 2009
    b>RNA editing in higher plant organelles results in the conversion of specific cytidine residues to uridine residues in RNA...
  70. pmc Evolution of the deaminase fold and multiple origins of eukaryotic editing and mutagenic nucleic acid deaminases from bacterial toxin systems
    Lakshminarayan M Iyer
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:9473-97. 2011
    ..These observations greatly expand the distribution of possible unidentified mutagenic processes catalyzed by nucleic acid deaminases...
  71. ncbi CLB19, a pentatricopeptide repeat protein required for editing of rpoA and clpP chloroplast transcripts
    Anne Laure Chateigner-Boutin
    ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, Molecular and Chemical Sciences Building M316, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, 6009 WA, Australia
    Plant J 56:590-602. 2008
    b>RNA editing changes the sequence of many transcripts in plant organelles, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms determining the specificity of the process...
  72. pmc A complete sequence and transcriptomic analyses of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) mitochondrial genome
    Yongjun Fang
    Joint Center for Genomics Research JCGR, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology KACST and Chinese Academy of Sciences CAS, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    PLoS ONE 7:e37164. 2012
    ..In addition, consistent with previous discoveries, there are three co-transcribed gene clusters-18S-5S rRNA, rps3-rpl16 and nad3-rps12-in P. dactylifera, which are highly conserved among all known mitochondrial genomes of angiosperms...
  73. ncbi RNA editing at arg607 controls AMPA receptor exit from the endoplasmic reticulum
    Ingo H Greger
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, NYU School of Medicine, New York 10016, USA
    Neuron 34:759-72. 2002
    ..Therefore, Arg607 is a central regulator. In addition to channel gating, it also controls ER exit and may thereby ensure the availability of GluR2 for assembly into AMPARs...
  74. ncbi The mitochondrial genome of the gymnosperm Cycas taitungensis contains a novel family of short interspersed elements, Bpu sequences, and abundant RNA editing sites
    Shu Miaw Chaw
    Research Center for Biodiversity, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
    Mol Biol Evol 25:603-15. 2008
    ..It is characterized by abundant RNA editing sites (1,084), more than twice the number found in the angiosperm mtDNAs...
  75. ncbi Serotonin receptor 2C and mental disorders: genetic, expression and RNA editing studies
    Kazuya Iwamoto
    Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan
    RNA Biol 6:248-53. 2009
    ..Here we overviewed the genetic, expression and RNA editing studies suggesting the close relationship between HTR2C and major mental disorders including schizophrenia, ..
  76. ncbi Plant RNA editing
    Anne Laure Chateigner-Boutin
    Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia
    RNA Biol 7:213-9. 2010
    In plants, post-transcriptional modification of transcripts includes C-to-U, U-to-C and A-to-I editing. RNA editing in plants is essential, with many mutants impaired in editing of specific sites exhibiting strong deleterious phenotypes, ..
  77. ncbi The crystal structure of leucyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with tRNALeu in the post-transfer-editing conformation
    Michael Tukalo
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, c o Institut Laue Langevin, 156X, F 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 12:923-30. 2005
    ..The structures show that considerable domain rotations, notably of the editing domain, accompany the tRNA-3' end dynamics associated successively with aminoacylation, post-transfer editing and product release...
  78. pmc Pin1 and WWP2 regulate GluR2 Q/R site RNA editing by ADAR2 with opposing effects
    Roberto Marcucci
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    EMBO J 30:4211-22. 2011
    ..Pin1 and WWP2 also regulate the large subunit of RNA Pol II, so these proteins may also coordinately regulate other key cellular proteins...
  79. pmc Evolutionarily conserved human targets of adenosine to inosine RNA editing
    Erez Y Levanon
    Compugen Ltd 72 Pinchas Rosen St, Tel Aviv 69512, Israel
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:1162-8. 2005
    A-to-I RNA editing by ADARs is a post-transcriptional mechanism for expanding the proteomic repertoire. Genetic recoding by editing was so far observed for only a few mammalian RNAs that are predominantly expressed in nervous tissues...
  80. pmc ADAR editing in double-stranded UTRs and other noncoding RNA sequences
    Heather A Hundley
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 35:377-83. 2010
    ..Although the role of editing in noncoding sequences remains unclear, ongoing research suggests functions in the regulation of a variety of post-transcriptional processes...
  81. pmc tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing by prokaryotic leucyl-tRNA synthetase
    Min Tan
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
    J Biol Chem 285:3235-44. 2010
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the binding of tRNA in the post-transfer editing conformation confers to the enzyme the capacity for pre-transfer editing catalysis, regardless of its capacity to catalyze post-transfer editing...
  82. pmc Regulation of glutamate receptor B pre-mRNA splicing by RNA editing
    Vera K Schoft
    Department of Chromosome Biology, Max F Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Dr Bohr Gasse 1, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:3723-32. 2007
    ..Editing of both the Q/R nucleotide and an intronic editing hotspot are required to allow efficient splicing. Inefficient intron removal may ensure that only properly edited mRNAs become spliced and exported to the cytoplasm...
  83. ncbi When you can't trust the DNA: RNA editing changes transcript sequences
    Volker Knoop
    Abteilung Molekulare Evolution, Institut für Zelluläre und Molekulare Botanik IZMB, Bonn, Germany
    Cell Mol Life Sci 68:567-86. 2011
    b>RNA editing describes targeted sequence alterations in RNAs so that the transcript sequences differ from their DNA template...
  84. pmc Discovery of the rpl10 gene in diverse plant mitochondrial genomes and its probable replacement by the nuclear gene for chloroplast RPL10 in two lineages of angiosperms
    Nakao Kubo
    Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Seika, Kyoto, Japan
    DNA Res 17:1-9. 2010
    ..rpl10 genes are transcribed in all nine land plants examined, with five seed plant genes subject to RNA editing. In addition, mitochondrial-rpl10-like cDNAs were identified in EST libraries from numerous land plants...
  85. pmc Modulation of RNA editing by functional nucleolar sequestration of ADAR2
    Christopher L Sansam
    Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:14018-23. 2003
    ..These observations indicate that the nucleolar localization of ADAR2 represents an important mechanism by which RNA editing can be modulated by the sequestration of enzymatic activity from potential RNA substrates in the nucleoplasm.
  86. ncbi RNA editing of AMPA receptor subunit GluR-B: a base-paired intron-exon structure determines position and efficiency
    M Higuchi
    Center for Molecular Biology, University of Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany
    Cell 75:1361-70. 1993
    A functionally critical position (Q/R site) of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR-B is controlled by RNA editing that operates in the nucleus, since in brain and clonal cell lines of neural origin, unspliced GluR-B transcripts occur edited ..
  87. pmc Inositol hexakisphosphate is bound in the ADAR2 core and required for RNA editing
    Mark R Macbeth
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Science 309:1534-9. 2005
    We report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human ADAR2, an RNA editing enzyme, at 1.7 angstrom resolution. The structure reveals a zinc ion in the active site and suggests how the substrate adenosine is recognized...
  88. ncbi Altered RNA editing of serotonin 2C receptor in a rat model of depression
    Kazuya Iwamoto
    Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako City, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Neurosci Res 53:69-76. 2005
    Altered RNA editing of serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C) has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of major depression...
  89. pmc Editing modifies the GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha3
    Johan Ohlson
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    RNA 13:698-703. 2007
    ..The extent of editing is low at birth but increases with age, reaching close to 100% in the adult brain. We therefore propose that editing of the Gabra-3 mRNA is important for normal brain development...
  90. ncbi Inosine cyanoethylation identifies A-to-I RNA editing sites in the human transcriptome
    Masayuki Sakurai
    Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Nat Chem Biol 6:733-40. 2010
    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional processing event involved in diversifying the transcriptome responsible for various biological processes...
  91. ncbi An antifungal agent inhibits an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase by trapping tRNA in the editing site
    Fernando L Rock
    Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Incorporated, 1060 East Meadow Circle, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA
    Science 316:1759-61. 2007
    ..This result establishes the editing site as a bona fide target for aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors...
  92. ncbi Deregulation of the A-to-I RNA editing mechanism in psychiatric disorders
    Gilad Silberberg
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University, Stockholm 10691, Sweden
    Hum Mol Genet 21:311-21. 2012
    ..Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing is a cellular mechanism, which has been implicated in mental disorders and suicide...
  93. pmc A new Ebola virus nonstructural glycoprotein expressed through RNA editing
    Masfique Mehedi
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Virol 85:5406-14. 2011
    ..While ssGP appears to share similar structural properties with sGP, it does not appear to have the same anti-inflammatory function on endothelial cells as sGP...
  94. pmc A cytidine deaminase edits C to U in transfer RNAs in Archaea
    Lennart Randau
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Science 324:657-9. 2009
    ..The presence of this C-to-U editing enzyme guarantees the proper folding and functionality of all M. kandleri tRNAs...
  95. ncbi RNA editing of the serotonin 5HT2C receptor and its effects on cell signalling, pharmacology and brain function
    Tim D Werry
    Drug Discovery Biology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
    Pharmacol Ther 119:7-23. 2008
    The process of RNA editing involves the modification of mRNA at specific sites by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADAR) enzymes...
  96. ncbi Genomic RNA editing and its impact on Ebola virus adaptation during serial passages in cell culture and infection of guinea pigs
    Valentina A Volchkova
    Filovirus Laboratory, INSERM U758, Human Virology Department, Universite de Lyon, Claude Bernard Université Lyon 1, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, France
    J Infect Dis 204:S941-6. 2011
    Synthesis of the structural, surface glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus (EBOV) is dependent on transcriptional RNA editing phenomenon...
  97. pmc Complete characterization of the edited transcriptome of the mitochondrion of Physarum polycephalum using deep sequencing of RNA
    R Bundschuh
    Department of Physics, Department of Biochemistry and Center for RNA Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:6044-55. 2011
    ..Curiously, one of the latter mRNAs contains no editing sites...
  98. pmc A unique transcriptome: 1782 positions of RNA editing alter 1406 codon identities in mitochondrial mRNAs of the lycophyte Isoetes engelmannii
    Felix Grewe
    IZMB, Universitat Bonn, Kirschallee 1, 53115 Bonn, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:2890-902. 2011
    ..representative of the lycophytes recently revealed very small introns and indications for extremely frequent RNA editing. To analyze functionality of intron splicing and the extent of RNA editing in I...
  99. pmc RNA editing modulates the binding of drugs and highly unsaturated fatty acids to the open pore of Kv potassium channels
    Niels Decher
    Institut fur Physiologie und Pathophysiologie, Universitat Marburg, Marburg, Germany
    EMBO J 29:2101-13. 2010
    ..1 channels whose amino acid sequence was altered by RNA editing in the pore cavity, and in Kv1.x heteromeric channels containing edited Kv1.1 subunits...
  100. ncbi AMPA receptor tetramerization is mediated by Q/R editing
    Ingo H Greger
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Neuron 40:763-74. 2003
    ..Here we show that AMPAR assembly and subunit stoichiometry are determined by RNA editing in the pore loop...
  101. ncbi Point mutation in an AMPA receptor gene rescues lethality in mice deficient in the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2
    M Higuchi
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg, Germany
    Nature 406:78-81. 2000
    b>RNA editing by site-selective deamination of adenosine to inosine alters codons and splicing in nuclear transcripts, and therefore protein function...

Research Grants67

  1. Interaction between RNA interference and RNA editing pathways
    Kazuko Nishikura; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): One type of RNA editing involves the conversion of adenosine residues into inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) through the action of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR)...
  2. Genomics of RNA Editing: Identification and Regulation
    Jin Billy Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>RNA editing, the post-transcriptional alteration of genome-encoded information by chemical modification of individual RNA ..
  3. Control of Cardiogenesis by microRNA Editing
    Kazuko Nishikura; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One type of RNA editing involves the conversion of adenosine residues into inosine in double-stranded RNA by the action of ADAR (..
  4. Function of mRNA Editing in Trypanosomes
    Stephen L Hajduk; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Grant Number: 2R01AI021401 - 24A2 PI Name: Hajduk, Stephen L. RNA editing in trypanosomes is a remarkable post-transcriptional process that results in the formation of mitochondrial mRNAs differing from their genes by the insertion or ..
  5. The bioorganic chemistry of RNA editing by ADARs
    Peter A Beal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The RNA editing ADAR enzymes convert adenosines to inosines in RNA. Since inosine is decoded as guanosine during translation, this modification can lead to changes in the meaning of codons (recoding)...
  6. ACTIVATION INDUCED DEAMINASE (AID) INTERACTING PROTEINS
    Michel C Nussenzweig; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The "Activation Induced Deaminase" (AID-protein) is potentially involved in RNA editing in human lymphocytes...
  7. RNA editing in a transgenic mouse model of behavioral despair and anxiety.
    Minati Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A gain or loss of 5HT2CR as a result of RNA editing is a potential mechanism for generating psychopathology...
  8. FUNCTION OF THE KINETOPLAST IN THE HEMOFLAGELLATES
    Larry Simpson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): U-insertion/deletion RNA editing is a unique post-transcriptional RNA modification process occurring in the mitochondria of trypanosomatid parasites...
  9. ENTEROHEPATIC LIPID FLUX AND APOPROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS
    NICHOLAS DAVIDSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The longstanding focus of this award has been the posttranscriptional regulation of apolipoprotein B (apoB) RNA editing and the apoB isoform-specific (i.e...
  10. Novel transgenic tools for analysis of 5HT2C receptor expression and function
    Ronald B Emeson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Transcripts encoding the 5HT2C receptor can be modified by up to five adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing events, a process responsible for the cell-specific expression of as many as 24 receptor isoforms which may ..
  11. RNA editing-mediated modulation of serotonin 2C receptor protein expression
    RANDI JO ULBRICHT; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..encoding the 2C-subtype of serotonin (5HT2C) receptor can be modified by up to five adenosine-to- inosine RNA editing events, generating as many as 24 protein isoforms that differ in their receptor:G-protein coupling efficacy and ..
  12. A new tool for the cell-specific identification of RNA binding protein targets
    Michael Rosbash; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It involves creating a fusion protein between an RBP and the catalytic domain of a RNA editing enzyme like ADAR (adenosine deaminase)...
  13. Deep sequence profiling of gRNA transcriptomes in two stages of Trypanosoma bruce
    DONNA JAY KOSLOWSKY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..One of the most striking and ancient examples of small RNA regulation of gene expression is the process of RNA editing in the mitochondria of trypanosomes...
  14. Site-directed RNA editing: a new method to correct disease causing mutations
    Joshua J C Rosenthal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose to meet the challenge by harnessing the natural ability of RNA editing enzymes to site-specifically fix mutations in endogenous mRNAs...
  15. Viral and Bacterial DNA Ligases
    STEWART H SHUMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..RNA ligases participate in breakage-repair pathways that underlie tRNA splicing, post-transcriptional RNA editing, and cellular stress responses...
  16. Study the roles of RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 in the regulation of cell death
    Qingde Wang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This study is expected to have an important impact in the fields of RNA editing, signal transduction, and diseases that involve cell death mechanisms and therefore contribute to improve human ..
  17. RNA Editing in the Neonatal and Adult Testis
    Elizabeth M Snyder; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): RNA editing, the modification of nucleotides within an RNA species, is widespread in mammals...
  18. The Biology and Biochemistry of ADAR RNA Editing Enzymes
    Brenda L Bass; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Project Summary/Abstract ADARs are RNA editing enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine in cellular and viral double- stranded RNA (dsRNA)...
  19. Human neurobehavioral phenotypes associates with the extended PWS/AS domain
    Arthur L Beaudet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This aim will focus on genome-wide analysis of expression and on alternative splicing and RNA editing (again using RNA-Seq) in human and mouse brain lacking expression of HBII-85...
  20. Role of the guide RNA binding protein RBP16 in the bloodstream form of T. brucei
    John C Fisk; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In T. brucei mitochondria, post-transcriptional RNA editing is required for the creation of translatable mRNAs...
  21. Guide RNA Binding Complex
    RUSLAN AFASIZHEV; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Indeed, some unique gene expression pathways, such as RNA editing, have been discovered in this parasite's giant mitochondrion...
  22. Neurochemistry and Genetics of Drosophila CaMKII
    Leslie C Griffith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have discovered a novel role for RNA editing in localization that has implications for many other genes that undergo this type of modification...
  23. Regulation of the Na/K Pump by RNA Editing
    Joshua J C Rosenthal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This project focuses on how the Na/K pump is regulated by RNA editing. A central premise to our approach is that naturally occurring codon changes, caused by RNA editing, can lead us to functionally ..
  24. Biogenesis and Function of Guide RNAs
    RUSLAN AFASIZHEV; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..maxi- and minicircle transcripts to create functional mRNAs via nucleolytic processing, U- insertion/deletion RNA editing, and 32 polyadenylation...
  25. Molecular and anatomical basis of sleep regulation by SLEEPLESS
    William J Joiner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sss is under the control of RNA editing machinery, and edited sss is less effective than uneditable sss at promoting sleep...
  26. Structures and Functions of RNA Editing TUTases
    RUSLAN AFASIZHEV; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies of the RNA editing and guide RNA maturation processes emphasize RNA uridylylation reactions as crucial for RNA biogenesis in ..
  27. Regulation of K+ Channel Gating by RNA Editing
    Sandra C Garrett; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..For this project, we propose to use RNA editing in octopus as a guide to identify key functional residues in a voltage-dependent K+ channel, and then to study ..
  28. The role of non-canonical base pairs in RNA editing
    Blaine H M Mooers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Kinetoplastids have a unique RNA editing system (kRNA editing) not found in humans, rendering a promising drug target...
  29. Genetic control of susceptibility of testicular cancer
    Joseph H Nadeau; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Deadend1*Ter, which increases susceptibility, is related to genes involved in RNA editing and blocks access of specific miRNAs to their target mRNAs...
  30. Landscape of transcription in human and mouse
    THOMAS RAYMOND GINGERAS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that will be used to map the RNA data against and derive information concerning allele-specific expression and RNA editing. Unannotated transcript models will be tested using long-range (PacBio/454) sequencing...
  31. Lamarck Redux: Transgenerational genetic effects on phenotypes and disease
    Joseph H Nadeau; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Our discoveries implicate RNA editing, miRNA biology, translation control as well as perhaps RNA granules in these transgenerational effects...
  32. Lamarck Redux: Transgenerational genetic effects on phenotypes and disease
    Joseph H Nadeau; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our discoveries implicate RNA editing, miRNA biology, translation control as well as perhaps RNA granules in these transgenerational effects...
  33. Function of ADAR1 in Hematopoietic and Leukemia Stem Cells
    Qingde Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This project is to define the function of RNA editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) in hematopoietic and leukemia stem cells...
  34. Identification of substances that change alternative pre-mRNA splicing of the ser
    Stefan Stamm; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This inclusion can be achieved by two mechanisms: (i) RNA editing, which generates less active receptors and (ii) promotion by specific small nuclear RNAs which generates the ..
  35. Probing the Link between RNA Editing and Drug Addiction
    Stella Dracheva; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>RNA editing is a post-transcriptional mechanism that can alter one or more translational codons, thereby giving rise to ..
  36. Mammalian Reovirus Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
    CHARLES ROY MARTINEZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This work will also foster the development of viral preventative, diagnostic, and therapeutic modalities against pathogenic RNA viruses. ..
  37. HIV and ADAR Editing
    Marie Louise Hammarskjold; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Proteins of the ADAR (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) family catalyze the most common RNA editing event in mRNA in human cells, A to I deamination...
  38. Ion channels and calcium regulation in vascular SMC function
    Victoria M Bolotina; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that the same Orai1 gene can encode channels with profoundly different selectivity, and ADAR1-mediated RNA editing can be a molecular mechanism for versification of Orai1 properties in different cell types...
  39. Calcium Permeable AMPA Receptors: Signaling, Toxicity and Control
    Edward B Ziff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..GluR2 when modified by RNA editing dominantly blocks the Ca2+ conductance of AMPAR channels...
  40. The effects of ADARs on microRNAs in C. elegans
    MICHAEL BRYAN WARF; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..I plan to identify if the RNA editing proteins ADARs affect small RNA levels and/or function, and would therefore indicate that research of ADARs&..
  41. Cancer transcriptome characterization using massively parallel DNA sequencing
    MARCO ANTONIO MARRA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the expression of genes, individual exons and microRNAs, and analyze the sequences to discover mutations and RNA editing events in expressed sequences...
  42. Structure-Function Relationships in Kinetoplastid RNA-Editing
    WILHELMUS HOL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>RNA editing in kinetoplastids, several of which are global pathogens, is a unique, and essential, process in the mitochondria of these ancient eukaryotes...
  43. Comprhensive analysis of functional RNA elements encoded in the human genome
    Brenton R Graveley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..information regarding the roles of each RBP in splicing, cleavage and polyadenylation, RNA stability, RNA editing, translation, RNA localization, and transcription...
  44. Development of a Transfection System for Trypanosome Mitochondria
    Torsten Ochsenreiter; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of two genomes (mitochondrial and nuclear) as well as a major RNA modification process in the mitochondrion (RNA editing)...
  45. Regulation of RNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei
    Laurie K Read; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Our research is aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms of RNA editing in kinetoplastid parasites, which cause African sleeping sickness, Chagas'disease, and leishmaniasis...
  46. APOLIPOPROTEIN B48 AND LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM
    Lawrence Chan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..APOBEC-1 has been identified as the C6U RNA editing protein that mediates this reaction...
  47. Robust and Portable Workflow-based tolls for MRNA and Genome re-sequencing
    James A Knowles; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A final effort will include combining the workflows for RNA-seq data and genome re-sequencing data to perform RNA editing analysis...
  48. MITOCHONDRIAL RNA EDITING IN TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI
    DONNA KOSLOWSKY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    The phenomenon of mitochondrial RNA editing in kinetoplastid protozoans is the most radical form of post transcriptional alteration known to date...
  49. A Novel DExH-box Helicase associates with catalytic editing proteins in a putativ
    Jorge Cruz Reyes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..They exhibit a unique form of RNA editing by the specific insertion and deletion of uridylates in most mitochondrial mRNAs prior to their translation...
  50. ENTEROHEPATIC LIPID FLUX AND APOPROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
    NICHOLAS DAVIDSON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to clone a candidate factor, p54, whose interactions, distribution and function make it a candidate apo B RNA editing associated protein...
  51. FASEB CONFERENCE: HELICASES: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION
    Smita Patel; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..for DNA replication, repair, recombination transcription, ribosome biogenesis, translation, RNA splicing, RNA editing, RNA transport, RNA degradation, bacterial conjugation, and viral packaging/unpackaging...
  52. FASEB Summer Conference on Helicase and NTP-Driven Nucleic Acid Motors: Structure
    Timothy Lohman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..DNA replication, repair, recombination, transcription, ribosome biogenesis, translation, RNA splicing, RNA editing, RNA transport, RNA degradation, bacterial conjugation, and viral packaging/unpackaging...
  53. THE MECHANISM AND FUNCTION OF A TO I RNA EDITING
    Jinghua Yang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The A-to-I RNA editing, a distinct mechanism of mRNA editing in mammalian cells has been previously identified by our laboratory...
  54. Regulation of RNA Editing in Leishmania
    DMITRI MASLOV; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These parasites appear to depend on active mitochondrial functions including mRNA processing by RNA editing, throughout their life cycle, thus making the RNA editing machinery a promising drug target...
  55. IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON AND UNCOMMON GENE VARIANTS IN PBC
    Michael F Seldin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ability to correlate sequence variation with 1) gene expression, 2) eQTN data, 3) alternative exon usage, 4) RNA editing and 5) preferential allelic expression...
  56. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Serotonin Receptors
    RONALD EMESON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..2C-subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT2 c R) is modulated by a novel RNA modification process referred to as RNA editing. Editing of 5-HL2cR transcripts is responsible for the tissue-specific expression of as many as twenty-four 5-..
  57. FOOTPRINTING WITH IRON (II)-GENERATED HYDROXYL RADICAL
    THOMAS TULLIUS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..DNA structure on transcription; (4) to perform hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments on the complex of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 with left-handed Z-DNA, with the eventual goal of performing chemical probe experiments to define ..
  58. MECHANISM OF APOLIPOPROTEIN B-48 BIOGENESIS
    Lawrence Chan; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The C--->U change appears to be the product of a tissue-specific RNA editing reaction. This application deals with the characterization of the RNA editing reaction in the rat liver...
  59. REGULATION OF RNA EDITING IN THE CNS
    Ronald B Emeson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The conversion of adenosine to inosine (A-to-l) by RNA editing represents an increasingly recognized post-transcriptional mechanism for generating diversity in eukaryotic gene expression...
  60. GRNA/MRNA INTERACTIONS IN TRYPANSOME RNA EDITING
    DONNA KOSLOWSKY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    DESCRIPTION: RNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei is a process that inserts / deletes uridylate residues (U) from mitochondrial pre-mRNA molecules...
  61. A Mouse Model of Mammalian Shaker Channel RNA Editing
    Tarun Bhalla; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We have discovered that the KCNA1 transcript is a target of RNA editing at a very highly conserved position in its coding sequence...
  62. Ca Regulation of Ca Channels
    David T Yue; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to molecular reality, and confounds understanding of just discovered physiological tuning of CaM regulation via RNA editing of CaV channels. These prominent challenges will be addressed by three specific aims...
  63. RNA editing and its inhibition of HIV-1 replication in human macrophage
    Yoshihiko Hoshino; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In some ways ADAR1 is similar to the RNA editing enzyme cytidine deaminase that has recently been shown the innate immunity to control HIV-1 replication...
  64. RNA as the catalyst for screening drugs against trypanosomatids
    Reza Salavati; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Mitochondrial gene expression in trypanosomatids requires a particular form of RNA editing, unique to these organisms, by which precursor mRNA sequences are changed, often extensively, by the insertion ..
  65. FUNCTION OF KINETOPLAST IN THE HEMOFLAGELLATES
    Larry Simpson; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Specific emphasis is on the unusual RNA processing phenomenon termed RNA editing which occurs in the mitochondrion of these cells. The specific aims are as follows: #1...
  66. TRANSCRIPTION OF NEGATIVE STRAND RNA VIRUSES
    Sue Moyer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..superficially to those of cellular enzymes although the mechanisms are different, whereas others, like RNA editing, are presently considered to be novel and unique to paramyxoviruses and filoviruses...
  67. Activation-induced deaminase as a mutator oncogene
    Andrea Bottaro; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..While AID bears significant similarity to the RNA editing enzyme APOBEC-1, recent findings suggest that it may act directly on DNA, changing cytidine residues into ..