nasal lavage fluid

Summary

Summary: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.

Top Publications

  1. Sanico A, Stanisz A, Gleeson T, Bora S, Proud D, Bienenstock J, et al. Nerve growth factor expression and release in allergic inflammatory disease of the upper airways. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:1631-5 pubmed
    ....
  2. Ghafouri B, Kihlstrom E, Ståhlbom B, Tagesson C, Lindahl M. PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins in human nasal lavage fluid. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003;31:810-4 pubmed
    ..We have identified two forms of the PLUNC protein in human nasal lavage fluid (NLF) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MS...
  3. Stark H, Roponen M, Purokivi M, Randell J, Tukiainen H, Hirvonen M. Aspergillus fumigatus challenge increases cytokine levels in nasal lavage fluid. Inhal Toxicol. 2006;18:1033-9 pubmed
    ..levels (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, interferon [IFN]-gamma) in nasal lavage fluid (NAL) compared with that evoked by placebo challenge...
  4. Ekman A, Fransson M, Rydberg C, Adner M, Cardell L. Nasal challenge with LPS stimulates the release of macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;149:154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha) is a chemokine released during the inflammatory process. The present study investigated the potential role and regulation of MIP-1alpha in LPS-induced nasal inflammation...
  5. Benson M, Jansson L, Adner M, Luts A, Uddman R, Cardell L. Gene profiling reveals decreased expression of uteroglobin and other anti-inflammatory genes in nasal fluid cells from patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:473-8 pubmed
    ..Little is known about anti-inflammatory mediators in IAR. DNA microarrays allow simultaneous analysis of the whole transcriptome in a sample...
  6. Meyer P, Andersson M, Persson C, Greiff L. Steroid-sensitive indices of airway inflammation in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2003;14:60-5 pubmed
    ..i.d) were determined in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal lavage fluid levels of eotaxin, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and alpha2-macroglobulin, indicating plasma exudation, ..
  7. Widegren H, Korsgren M, Andersson M, Greiff L. Effects of TNFalpha on the human nasal mucosa in vivo. Respir Med. 2007;101:1982-7 pubmed
    ..Increased nasal mucosal output of TNFalpha has been demonstrated in allergic rhinitis, but the effect of TNFalpha on the human nasal mucosa has not been examined in vivo...
  8. Wieslander G, Norback D, Venge P. Changes of symptoms, tear film stability and eosinophilic cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid after re-exposure to a damp office building with a history of flooding. Indoor Air. 2007;17:19-27 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, subjects previously exposed to building dampness had an increase of symptoms, reduced tear film stability, and signs of eosinophilic inflammation in the nasal mucosa after 2 days of re-exposure...
  9. Erin E, Zacharasiewicz A, Nicholson G, Tan A, Higgins L, Williams T, et al. Topical corticosteroid inhibits interleukin-4, -5 and -13 in nasal secretions following allergen challenge. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:1608-14 pubmed
    ..Cytokines and chemokines produced by allergen-reactive T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells may be pivotal to the pathophysiology of allergic disorders...
  10. Cho Y, Park S, Lee C, Yoo B, Moon H. Elevated substance P levels in nasal lavage fluids from patients with chronic nonproductive cough and increased cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:695-701 pubmed
    ..The exact mechanism of a chronic nonproductive cough is sometimes unclear when patients who are without symptoms or signs indicating the major causes of chronic cough remain undiagnosed...

Detail Information

Publications71

  1. Sanico A, Stanisz A, Gleeson T, Bora S, Proud D, Bienenstock J, et al. Nerve growth factor expression and release in allergic inflammatory disease of the upper airways. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:1631-5 pubmed
    ....
  2. Ghafouri B, Kihlstrom E, Ståhlbom B, Tagesson C, Lindahl M. PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins in human nasal lavage fluid. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003;31:810-4 pubmed
    ..We have identified two forms of the PLUNC protein in human nasal lavage fluid (NLF) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MS...
  3. Stark H, Roponen M, Purokivi M, Randell J, Tukiainen H, Hirvonen M. Aspergillus fumigatus challenge increases cytokine levels in nasal lavage fluid. Inhal Toxicol. 2006;18:1033-9 pubmed
    ..levels (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, interferon [IFN]-gamma) in nasal lavage fluid (NAL) compared with that evoked by placebo challenge...
  4. Ekman A, Fransson M, Rydberg C, Adner M, Cardell L. Nasal challenge with LPS stimulates the release of macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;149:154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha) is a chemokine released during the inflammatory process. The present study investigated the potential role and regulation of MIP-1alpha in LPS-induced nasal inflammation...
  5. Benson M, Jansson L, Adner M, Luts A, Uddman R, Cardell L. Gene profiling reveals decreased expression of uteroglobin and other anti-inflammatory genes in nasal fluid cells from patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:473-8 pubmed
    ..Little is known about anti-inflammatory mediators in IAR. DNA microarrays allow simultaneous analysis of the whole transcriptome in a sample...
  6. Meyer P, Andersson M, Persson C, Greiff L. Steroid-sensitive indices of airway inflammation in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2003;14:60-5 pubmed
    ..i.d) were determined in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal lavage fluid levels of eotaxin, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and alpha2-macroglobulin, indicating plasma exudation, ..
  7. Widegren H, Korsgren M, Andersson M, Greiff L. Effects of TNFalpha on the human nasal mucosa in vivo. Respir Med. 2007;101:1982-7 pubmed
    ..Increased nasal mucosal output of TNFalpha has been demonstrated in allergic rhinitis, but the effect of TNFalpha on the human nasal mucosa has not been examined in vivo...
  8. Wieslander G, Norback D, Venge P. Changes of symptoms, tear film stability and eosinophilic cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid after re-exposure to a damp office building with a history of flooding. Indoor Air. 2007;17:19-27 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, subjects previously exposed to building dampness had an increase of symptoms, reduced tear film stability, and signs of eosinophilic inflammation in the nasal mucosa after 2 days of re-exposure...
  9. Erin E, Zacharasiewicz A, Nicholson G, Tan A, Higgins L, Williams T, et al. Topical corticosteroid inhibits interleukin-4, -5 and -13 in nasal secretions following allergen challenge. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:1608-14 pubmed
    ..Cytokines and chemokines produced by allergen-reactive T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells may be pivotal to the pathophysiology of allergic disorders...
  10. Cho Y, Park S, Lee C, Yoo B, Moon H. Elevated substance P levels in nasal lavage fluids from patients with chronic nonproductive cough and increased cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:695-701 pubmed
    ..The exact mechanism of a chronic nonproductive cough is sometimes unclear when patients who are without symptoms or signs indicating the major causes of chronic cough remain undiagnosed...
  11. Bastain T, Gilliland F, Li Y, Saxon A, Diaz Sanchez D. Intraindividual reproducibility of nasal allergic responses to diesel exhaust particles indicates a susceptible phenotype. Clin Immunol. 2003;109:130-6 pubmed
    ....
  12. Gawlik R, Jawor B. [Endothelin-1 in nasal lavage fluid of allergic rhinitis patients--new mediator of allergic rhinitis]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2007;61:567-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Increase in concentration of endothelin-1 in nasal lavage fluid from allergic patients were significantly higher than in control group respectively from 18.33 +/- 5...
  13. Wang H, Chavali S, Mobini R, Muraro A, Barbon F, Boldrin D, et al. A pathway-based approach to find novel markers of local glucocorticoid treatment in intermittent allergic rhinitis. Allergy. 2011;66:132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we aimed to identify (i) pathways affected by local GC treatment and (ii) examine if those pathways could be used to find novel markers of local GC treatment in nasal fluids from patients with IAR...
  14. Barraza Villarreal A, Sunyer J, Hernandez Cadena L, Escamilla Núñez M, Sienra Monge J, Ramirez Aguilar M, et al. Air pollution, airway inflammation, and lung function in a cohort study of Mexico City schoolchildren. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:832-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The biological mechanisms involved in inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood...
  15. Krakowiak A, Ruta U, Górski P, Kowalska S, Pałczyński C. Nasal lavage fluid examination and rhinomanometry in the diagnostics of occupational airway allergy to laboratory animals. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2003;16:125-32 pubmed
    The purpose of this studywas to compare the cellular and biochemical findings in the nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and nasal resistance changes due to a challenge with laboratory animal allergens in 25 patients with occupational asthma and ..
  16. Lindahl M, Irander K, Tagesson C, Ståhlbom B. Nasal lavage fluid and proteomics as means to identify the effects of the irritating epoxy chemical dimethylbenzylamine. Biomarkers. 2004;9:56-70 pubmed
    The aims of this study were to describe the changes in the nasal lavage fluid (NLF) protein pattern after exposure to the irritating epoxy chemical dimethylbenzylamine (DMBA) and to identify the affected proteins using a proteomic ..
  17. Rohde G, Wiethege A, Borg I, Kauth M, Bauer T, Gillissen A, et al. Respiratory viruses in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring hospitalisation: a case-control study. Thorax. 2003;58:37-42 pubmed
    ..Many exacerbations are believed to be due to upper and/or lower respiratory tract viral infections, but the incidence of these infections in patients with COPD is still undetermined...
  18. Nokes D, Okiro E, Ngama M, White L, Ochola R, Scott P, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus epidemiology in a birth cohort from Kilifi district, Kenya: infection during the first year of life. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:1828-32 pubmed
    ..RSV contributed significantly to total LRTI disease in this vaccine-target group...
  19. Ghafouri B, Kihlström E, Tagesson C, Lindahl M. PLUNC in human nasal lavage fluid: multiple isoforms that bind to lipopolysaccharide. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1699:57-63 pubmed
    Here, we demonstrate the presence of multiple isoforms of palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) in human nasal lavage fluid (NLF)...
  20. Fuentes Beltrán A, Montes Vizuet R, Valencia Maqueda E, Negrete García M, García Cruz M, Teran L. Chemokine CC-ligand 5 production and eosinophil activation into the upper airways of aspirin-sensitive patients. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:491-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Airway eosinophilia is a hallmark of aspirin-sensitive asthma/rhinitis...
  21. Takahashi Y, Kagawa Y, Izawa K, Ono R, Akagi M, Kamei C. Effect of histamine H4 receptor antagonist on allergic rhinitis in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:734-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured allergic symptoms (sneezing and nasal rubbing), serum total IgE and the levels of cytokines in nasal lavage fluid. Histamine H(4) receptor antagonist, JNJ7777120, caused the dose-dependent inhibition of nasal symptoms by ..
  22. Tieu D, Peters A, Carter R, Carter R, Suh L, Conley D, et al. Evidence for diminished levels of epithelial psoriasin and calprotectin in chronic rhinosinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:667-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased epithelial expression of mRNA for S100A7 (psoriasin) and S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) has been reported in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)...
  23. Bryborn M, Adner M, Cardell L. Psoriasin, one of several new proteins identified in nasal lavage fluid from allergic and non-allergic individuals using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Respir Res. 2005;6:118 pubmed
    ..DNA microarrays have recently made it possible to compare mRNA profiles of lavage fluids from healthy and diseased patients, whereas information on the protein level is still lacking...
  24. Larsson B, Grunewald J, Skold C, Lundin A, Sandstrom T, Eklund A, et al. Limited airway effects in mild asthmatics after exposure to air pollution in a road tunnel. Respir Med. 2010;104:1912-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may further emphasize asthmatics as a vulnerable group to common air pollutants...
  25. Raulf Heimsoth M, Pesch B, Schott K, Kappler M, Preuss R, Marczynski B, et al. Irritative effects of fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways: results of a cross-shift study. Arch Toxicol. 2007;81:35-44 pubmed
    ..Humoral and cellular parameters were measured in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and induced sputum...
  26. Kongerud J, Madden M, Hazucha M, Peden D. Nasal responses in asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects following exposure to diesel exhaust particles. Inhal Toxicol. 2006;18:589-94 pubmed
    ..Nasal cell populations and soluble mediators in the nasal lavage fluid were characterized...
  27. Hurst J, Wilkinson T, Perera W, Donaldson G, Wedzicha J. Relationships among bacteria, upper airway, lower airway, and systemic inflammation in COPD. Chest. 2005;127:1219-26 pubmed
    ....
  28. Svendsen E, Yeatts K, Peden D, Orton S, Alexis N, Creason J, et al. Circulating neutrophil CD14 expression and the inverse association of ambient particulate matter on lung function in asthmatic children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007;99:244-53 pubmed
    ....
  29. Hurst J, Perera W, Wilkinson T, Donaldson G, Wedzicha J. Systemic and upper and lower airway inflammation at exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:71-8 pubmed
    ..Although exacerbations of COPD are associated with increased pulmonary and systemic inflammation, determinants of the systemic response remain obscure, and nor is it known whether there is nasal involvement...
  30. Ghafouri B, Irander K, Lindbom J, Tagesson C, Lindahl M. Comparative proteomics of nasal fluid in seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Proteome Res. 2006;5:330-8 pubmed
    A comparative proteomic approach was applied to examine nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR, n = 6) and healthy subjects (controls, n = 5)...
  31. Nabe T, Tsuzuike N, Ohtani Y, Mizutani N, Watanabe S, Fujii M, et al. Important roles of tachykinins in the development of allergic nasal hyperresponsiveness in guinea-pigs. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:138-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we decided to examine the effects of tachykinin receptor antagonists on AR symptoms in an appropriate experimental model...
  32. Casado B, Pannell L, Viglio S, Iadarola P, Baraniuk J. Analysis of the sinusitis nasal lavage fluid proteome using capillary liquid chromatography interfaced to electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight- tandem mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis. 2004;25:1386-93 pubmed
    ..The proteomic approach presented here allowed us to identify, in the high complexity of acute sinusitis nasal secretions, the proteins that respond to a pharmacological treatment and that could be suitable as markers of this pathology...
  33. Kinhult J, Adner M, Uddman R, Cardell L. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, effects in the human nose. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003;33:942-9 pubmed
    ....
  34. Benson L, Mason C, Friedman O, Kita H, Bergen H, Plager D. Extensive fractionation and identification of proteins within nasal lavage fluids from allergic rhinitis and asthmatic chronic rhinosinusitis patients. J Sep Sci. 2009;32:44-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To enhance the detection of lower abundance proteins, intact nasal lavage fluid (NLF) proteins from nonpolypoid AR and from asthmatic CRS patients were extensively fractionated prior to LC/..
  35. Mansson A, Bachar O, Adner M, Cardell L. Nasal CpG oligodeoxynucleotide administration induces a local inflammatory response in nonallergic individuals. Allergy. 2009;64:1292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..CpG is known to skew the immune system towards a T helper 1 (Th1) profile, thereby suppressing Th2-driven allergic responses. This study was designed to examine the effects of CpG administration in the human nose...
  36. Piotrowska V, Piotrowski W, Kurmanowska Z, Marczak J, Górski P, Antczak A. Rhinosinusitis in COPD: symptoms, mucosal changes, nasal lavage cells and eicosanoids. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2010;5:107-17 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence of upper airways disease in COPD, which appears to be related more to patients who currently smoke than to disease severity...
  37. Henriksson G, Westrin K, Karpati F, Wikstrom A, Stierna P, Hjelte L. Nasal polyps in cystic fibrosis: clinical endoscopic study with nasal lavage fluid analysis. Chest. 2002;121:40-7 pubmed
    ..The aims of this study were to focus on what problems (symptoms, endoscopic findings, and laboratory correlates) nasal polyps cause the CF patient, and how these correlate to the total health situation of this patient group...
  38. van Zuijlen D, van de Graaf E, van Bolhuis E, Versluis C, Knol E, van der Baan S. Measuring plasma exudation in nasal lavage fluid and in induced sputum as a tool for studying respiratory tract inflammation. J Immunol Methods. 2001;256:1-10 pubmed
    ..Determination of plasma exudation together with RCE in NAL and induced sputum is a good, non-invasive way to quantify inflammation of airway mucosa...
  39. Herlocher M, Elias S, Truscon R, Harrison S, Mindell D, Simon C, et al. Ferrets as a transmission model for influenza: sequence changes in HA1 of type A (H3N2) virus. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:542-6 pubmed
    ..The results show the value of the ferret model. A/LA resembled the transmission of influenza in humans when under antibody pressure...
  40. Belda J, Parameswaran K, Keith P, Hargreave F. Repeatability and validity of cell and fluid-phase measurements in nasal fluid: a comparison of two methods of nasal lavage. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31:1111-5 pubmed
    ..There is little information on the repeatability of cell counts and fluid-phase measurements in nasal fluid obtained by different methods of nasal lavage...
  41. Hirvonen M, Ruotsalainen M, Roponen M, Hyvarinen A, Husman T, Kosma V, et al. Nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in nasal lavage fluid associated with symptoms and exposure to moldy building microbes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160:1943-6 pubmed
    ..concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) in nasal lavage fluid were significantly higher in the exposed than in the control subjects at the end of the first exposure ..
  42. Benson M, Strannegard I, Wennergren G, Strannegard O. Interleukin-5 and interleukin-8 in relation to eosinophils and neutrophils in nasal fluids from school children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1999;10:178-85 pubmed
    ..IL-5 levels and relative eosinophil counts in nasal lavage fluid increased significantly in patients with allergic rhinitis during the pollen season, compared with values ..
  43. Wieslander G, Norback D, Nordstrom K, Wålinder R, Venge P. Nasal and ocular symptoms, tear film stability and biomarkers in nasal lavage, in relation to building-dampness and building design in hospitals. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1999;72:451-61 pubmed
    ..To study the relationships between dampness in concrete floors and building design on the one hand, and symptoms and medical signs of the eyes and nose in hospital workers, on the other...
  44. Bradding P, Mediwake R, Feather I, Madden J, Church M, Holgate S, et al. TNF alpha is localized to nasal mucosal mast cells and is released in acute allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 1995;25:406-15 pubmed
    ..05). This difference was also apparent when studying the area under the curve both at 30 and 60 min post-challenge t-test (P = 0.015 and 0.02 respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  45. Lindahl M, Ståhlbom B, Svartz J, Tagesson C. Protein patterns of human nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids analyzed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 1998;19:3222-9 pubmed
    We have previously described the protein patterns of human nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)...
  46. Lindahl M, Svartz J, Tagesson C. Demonstration of different forms of the anti-inflammatory proteins lipocortin-1 and Clara cell protein-16 in human nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Electrophoresis. 1999;20:881-90 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the identification of different forms of the two proteins makes possible more detailed studies on the role of these proteins in inflammatory disease processes and anti-inflammatory therapies...
  47. Steerenberg P, Nierkens S, Fischer P, van Loveren H, Opperhuizen A, Vos J, et al. Traffic-related air pollution affects peak expiratory flow, exhaled nitric oxide, and inflammatory nasal markers. Arch Environ Health. 2001;56:167-74 pubmed
    ..In summary, urban children had increased levels of inflammatory nasal markers, and their responses were more pronounced than were the suburban children's responses to the same increments of air pollution...
  48. Miyake K, Horikoshi K, Ikeda Y, Ishii A, Karasawa A. Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride on the increase of histamine and peptide-leukotrienes concentrations in nasal lavage fluid following the antigen-antibody reaction in actively sensitized guinea pigs. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2001;85:453-6 pubmed
    ..of allergic rhinitis, we determined its effects on the increase of chemical mediator concentrations in nasal lavage fluid following the intranasal antigen challenge in guinea pigs actively sensitized with DNP-Ascaris...
  49. Terada N, Hamano N, Kim W, Hirai K, Nakajima T, Yamada H, et al. The kinetics of allergen-induced eotaxin level in nasal lavage fluid: its key role in eosinophil recruitment in nasal mucosa. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:575-9 pubmed
    ..challenge led to parallel increases in eosinophil counts, levels of EPX, and eotaxin concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. The levels of eotaxin in lavage samples showed strong correlation with lavage levels of eosinophil counts ..
  50. Pałczyński C, Walusiak J, Ruta U, Gorski P. Occupational asthma and rhinitis due to glutaraldehyde: changes in nasal lavage fluid after specific inhalatory challenge test. Allergy. 2001;56:1186-91 pubmed
    ..Specific changes in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) induced by high-molecular-weight allergen provocation in sensitized subjects were described previously...
  51. Lund K, Refsnes M, Ramis I, Dunster C, Boe J, Schwarze P, et al. Human exposure to hydrogen fluoride induces acute neutrophilic, eicosanoid, and antioxidant changes in nasal lavage fluid. Inhal Toxicol. 2002;14:119-32 pubmed
    ..These findings may contribute to a further understanding of the way HF exerts damage to the airways and show that HF could represent an occupational hazard...
  52. Winther B, Arruda E, Witek T, Marlin S, Tsianco M, Innes D, et al. Expression of ICAM-1 in nasal epithelium and levels of soluble ICAM-1 in nasal lavage fluid during human experimental rhinovirus infection. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;128:131-6 pubmed
    ..examined with immunohistochemical staining of nasal scrape biopsy specimens, and levels of soluble ICAM-1 in nasal lavage fluid were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique...
  53. Besançon Watelet C, Bene M, Montagne P, Faure G, Jankowski R. Eosinophilia and cell activation mediators in nasal secretions. Laryngoscope. 2002;112:43-6 pubmed
    ..We assayed the levels of these three molecules in nasal secretions in correlation with cytologic findings and especially the degree of eosinophilia...
  54. Negrete Garcia M, Jiménez Torres C, Alvarado Vásquez N, Montes Vizuet A, Velázquez Rodriguez J, Jimenez Martinez M, et al. Galectin-10 is released in the nasal lavage fluid of patients with aspirin-sensitive respiratory disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:474020 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this work was to determine the presence of galectin-10 in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) of patients with aspirin-sensitive respiratory disease (ASRD) before and after challenge with L-ASA (aspirin) by ELISA...
  55. Kwon J, Kim S, Park S, Choi S, Lee D, Choi J, et al. Molecular epidemiologic analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bacteremia and nasal colonization at 10 intensive care units: multicenter prospective study in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:604-11 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and the positive predictive value was 90.2%. Among 23 nasal re-colonized strains, 7 MRSA strains (30.4%) were different from the originally colonized strains on the basis of PFGE types. ..
  56. Ishii M, Kojima N. Mucosal adjuvant activity of oligomannose-coated liposomes for nasal immunization. Glycoconj J. 2010;27:115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, liposomes coated with synthetic neoglycolipids might be useful as adjuvants for induction of mucosal immunity. ..
  57. Martinac A, Filipovic Grcic J, Perissutti B, Voinovich D, Pavelic Z. Spray-dried chitosan/ethylcellulose microspheres for nasal drug delivery: swelling study and evaluation of in vitro drug release properties. J Microencapsul. 2005;22:549-61 pubmed
    ..It seems like better formation of EC cores and chitosan coating were obtained when higher feed concentration and ultrasonic homogenization were employed in the preparation of emulsion systems and when EC to CM weight ratio was 1:3. ..
  58. Akpinar Elci M, Yucesoy B, Elci O, Weissman D. Noninvasive assessment of cytokines in occupational respiratory diseases. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2007;1:100-7 pubmed
    ..Details of genetic polymorphism were beyond the focus of this review. Our primary focus was cytokines measured with these three noninvasive techniques in occupational respiratory investigations. ..
  59. Horvath K, Herbst M, Zhou H, Zhang H, Noah T, Jaspers I. Nasal lavage natural killer cell function is suppressed in smokers after live attenuated influenza virus. Respir Res. 2011;12:102 pubmed publisher
    ..criteria alone, which have successfully identified neutrophils as a significant cell population within nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cells. However, flow cytometry may be a superior method to fully characterize NLF immune cells...
  60. Alahmari M, Sapsford R, Wedzicha J, Hurst J. Intersession repeatability of a novel nasal lavage technique. Transl Res. 2011;158:163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This method might be valuable in the study of inflammatory conditions involving the upper respiratory tract. ..
  61. Riddervold I, Bønløkke J, Olin A, Grønborg T, Schlunssen V, Skogstrand K, et al. Effects of wood smoke particles from wood-burning stoves on the respiratory health of atopic humans. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2012;9:12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, short term exposure with wood smoke at a concentration normally found in a residential area with a high density of burning wood stoves causes only mild inflammatory response. ..
  62. Kristiansson M, Lindh C, Jonsson B. Correlations between air levels of hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) and HHPA-adducted albumin tryptic peptides in nasal lavage fluid from experimentally exposed volunteers. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18:1592-8 pubmed
    ..It was possible to detect exposures below 10 microg/m3 with the method. Thus, these adducted peptides may be used as biomarkers of exposure, which may better estimate the risk than previous biomarkers developed for OAAs...
  63. Peters J, Singh H, Brooks E, Diaz J, Kannan T, Coalson J, et al. Persistence of community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome toxin-producing Mycoplasma pneumoniae in refractory asthma. Chest. 2011;140:401-407 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine the incidence of Mp infection and the presence of CARDS Tx in subjects with refractory asthma (RA)...
  64. Allen E, Randolph A, Bhangale T, Dogra P, Ohlson M, Oshansky C, et al. SNP-mediated disruption of CTCF binding at the IFITM3 promoter is associated with risk of severe influenza in humans. Nat Med. 2017;23:975-983 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies a new regulator of IFITM3 expression that associates with CD8+ T cell levels in the airways and a spectrum of clinical outcomes. ..
  65. Ringshausen F, Tan A, Allander T, Borg I, Arinir U, Kronsbein J, et al. Frequency and clinical relevance of human bocavirus infection in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2009;4:111-7 pubmed
    ..The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and clinical relevance of HBoV infection in adult patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD)...
  66. Watelet J, Gevaert P, Holtappels G, Van Cauwenberge P, Bachert C. Collection of nasal secretions for immunological analysis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2004;261:242-6 pubmed
    ..The method is non-invasive, well standardized and reproducible and therefore may serve as a valid tool for future investigations...
  67. Dimova Yaneva D, Russell D, Main M, Brooker R, Helms P. Eosinophil activation and cysteinyl leukotriene production in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34:555-8 pubmed
    ..ECP is a specific marker of eosinophil activation although leukotrienes can be released from a variety of cells including mast cells, eosinophils and monocytes...
  68. Passali D, Damiani V, Passali F, Passali G, Bellussi L. Atomized nasal douche vs nasal lavage in acute viral rhinitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;131:788-90 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of the atomized nasal douche in the restoration of physiological nasal functions in patients affected by acute viral rhinosinusitis, when compared with nasal lavages with isotonic sodium chloride solution...
  69. Shiomi Y, Shiomi Y, Oda N, Hosoda S. Hyperviscoelasticity of epipharyngeal mucus may induce globus pharyngis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002;111:1116-9 pubmed
    ..01). The fucose concentrations correlated significantly with the globus pharyngis scores (Spearman correlation, p < .05). We conclude that there is a close association between stagnant mucus in the epipharynx and globus sensation...
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    ..This study describes the clinical aspects and the severity of rhinovirus infections in hospitalised children...
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    ..These experiments support the clinical testing of pDNA vaccine candidates that may ultimately increase global vaccine supply options during pandemics...