phlebotomus fever

Summary

Summary: Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii.

Top Publications

  1. Imirzalioglu C, Schaller M, Bretzel R. [Sandfly fever Naples virus (serotype Toscana) infection with meningeal involvement after a vacation in Italy]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2006;131:2838-40 pubmed
    ..He returned from a vacation in Tuscany (Italy) a few days before admission. Physical examination revealed slight nuchal rigidity and an elevated body temperature of 37.8 C but was otherwise unremarkable...
  2. Eitrem R, Vene S, Niklasson B. Incidence of sand fly fever among Swedish United Nations soldiers on Cyprus during 1985. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;43:207-11 pubmed
    ..Of 5 such acute-phase sera from patients with serologically verified SF, virus was recovered from 2: 1 strain of SF Sicilian virus and 1 strain of SF Naples virus...
  3. Schwarz T, Jager G, Gilch S, Pauli C. Serosurvey and laboratory diagnosis of imported sandfly fever virus, serotype Toscana, infection in Germany. Epidemiol Infect. 1995;114:501-10 pubmed
    ..Although the seroprevalence of antibodies to TOS is low in Germany, TOS infection should be considered in patients returning from endemic areas who complain of fever, and headaches, and have symptoms of meningitis...
  4. Papa A, Andriotis V, Tzilianos M. Prevalence of Toscana virus antibodies in residents of two Ionian islands, Greece. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2010;8:302-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The high seroprevalence, combined with the high antibody titers observed, suggest that TOSV, or an antigenically-related virus, circulates or has been circulating extensively in the region...
  5. Schwarz T, Jager G, Gilch S, Pauli C, Eisenhut M, Nitschko H, et al. Travel-related vector-borne virus infections in Germany. Arch Virol Suppl. 1996;11:57-65 pubmed
    ..With the increase in travel to and from endemic areas, imported vector-borne virus infections are increasingly important in Germany...
  6. Batieha A, Saliba E, Graham R, Mohareb E, Hijazi Y, Wijeyaratne P. Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and sandfly arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:358-62 pubmed
    ..Our study is the first documentation of West Nile and sandfly viruses in Jordan and calls attention to the possible health hazards of living close to wastewater treatment plants and their effluent channels...
  7. Baldelli F, Ciufolini M, Francisci D, Marchi A, Venturi G, Fiorentini C, et al. Unusual presentation of life-threatening Toscana virus meningoencephalitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:515-20 pubmed
    ..Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products from the S and M segments was carried out. TOSv may be a causative agent in severe meningoencephalitis...
  8. Dionisio D, Esperti F, Vivarelli A, Valassina M. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects of sandfly fever. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2003;16:383-8 pubmed
    ..This review provides an update on the advances in knowledge about epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory aspects of infections caused by Toscana, Sicilian and Naples viruses...
  9. Valassina M, Valentini M, Pugliese A, Valensin P, Cusi M. Serological survey of Toscana virus infections in a high-risk population in Italy. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:483-4 pubmed
    ..2% in the forestry workers, particularly in the Tuscany region. This fact is strictly correlated with the ecological niches specific for the survival of Toscana virus arthropod vector...
  10. Schwarz T, Jager G, Gilch S, Nitschko H. Nested RT-PCR for detection of sandfly fever virus, serotype Toscana, in clinical specimens, with confirmation by nucleotide sequence analysis. Res Virol. 1995;146:355-62 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR and nested PCR are useful for laboratory diagnosis and studies of the molecular epidemiology of TOS infection...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Imirzalioglu C, Schaller M, Bretzel R. [Sandfly fever Naples virus (serotype Toscana) infection with meningeal involvement after a vacation in Italy]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2006;131:2838-40 pubmed
    ..He returned from a vacation in Tuscany (Italy) a few days before admission. Physical examination revealed slight nuchal rigidity and an elevated body temperature of 37.8 C but was otherwise unremarkable...
  2. Eitrem R, Vene S, Niklasson B. Incidence of sand fly fever among Swedish United Nations soldiers on Cyprus during 1985. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;43:207-11 pubmed
    ..Of 5 such acute-phase sera from patients with serologically verified SF, virus was recovered from 2: 1 strain of SF Sicilian virus and 1 strain of SF Naples virus...
  3. Schwarz T, Jager G, Gilch S, Pauli C. Serosurvey and laboratory diagnosis of imported sandfly fever virus, serotype Toscana, infection in Germany. Epidemiol Infect. 1995;114:501-10 pubmed
    ..Although the seroprevalence of antibodies to TOS is low in Germany, TOS infection should be considered in patients returning from endemic areas who complain of fever, and headaches, and have symptoms of meningitis...
  4. Papa A, Andriotis V, Tzilianos M. Prevalence of Toscana virus antibodies in residents of two Ionian islands, Greece. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2010;8:302-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The high seroprevalence, combined with the high antibody titers observed, suggest that TOSV, or an antigenically-related virus, circulates or has been circulating extensively in the region...
  5. Schwarz T, Jager G, Gilch S, Pauli C, Eisenhut M, Nitschko H, et al. Travel-related vector-borne virus infections in Germany. Arch Virol Suppl. 1996;11:57-65 pubmed
    ..With the increase in travel to and from endemic areas, imported vector-borne virus infections are increasingly important in Germany...
  6. Batieha A, Saliba E, Graham R, Mohareb E, Hijazi Y, Wijeyaratne P. Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and sandfly arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:358-62 pubmed
    ..Our study is the first documentation of West Nile and sandfly viruses in Jordan and calls attention to the possible health hazards of living close to wastewater treatment plants and their effluent channels...
  7. Baldelli F, Ciufolini M, Francisci D, Marchi A, Venturi G, Fiorentini C, et al. Unusual presentation of life-threatening Toscana virus meningoencephalitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:515-20 pubmed
    ..Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products from the S and M segments was carried out. TOSv may be a causative agent in severe meningoencephalitis...
  8. Dionisio D, Esperti F, Vivarelli A, Valassina M. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects of sandfly fever. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2003;16:383-8 pubmed
    ..This review provides an update on the advances in knowledge about epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory aspects of infections caused by Toscana, Sicilian and Naples viruses...
  9. Valassina M, Valentini M, Pugliese A, Valensin P, Cusi M. Serological survey of Toscana virus infections in a high-risk population in Italy. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:483-4 pubmed
    ..2% in the forestry workers, particularly in the Tuscany region. This fact is strictly correlated with the ecological niches specific for the survival of Toscana virus arthropod vector...
  10. Schwarz T, Jager G, Gilch S, Nitschko H. Nested RT-PCR for detection of sandfly fever virus, serotype Toscana, in clinical specimens, with confirmation by nucleotide sequence analysis. Res Virol. 1995;146:355-62 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR and nested PCR are useful for laboratory diagnosis and studies of the molecular epidemiology of TOS infection...
  11. Liu D, Tesh R, Travassos da Rosa A, Peters C, Yang Z, Guzman H, et al. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) based on partial M segment sequence analyses. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:465-73 pubmed
    ..These findings have implications for potential vaccine development and may help explain clinical reports of multiple episodes of sandfly fever in the same individual...
  12. Defuentes G, Rapp C, Imbert P, Durand J, Debord T. Acute meningitis owing to phlebotomus fever Toscana virus imported to France. J Travel Med. 2005;12:295-6 pubmed
    ..7 We report a case of meningitis caused by Toscana virus imported to France...
  13. Navarro Marí J, Gómez Camarasa C, Pérez Ruiz M, Sanbonmatsu Gámez S, Pedrosa Corral I, Jimenez Valera M. Clinic-epidemiologic study of human infection by Granada virus, a new phlebovirus within the sandfly fever Naples serocomplex. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88:1003-6 pubmed publisher
    ..GRV may infect humans, with most cases being asymptomatic. The codetection of anti-GRV and anti-TOSV IgG antibodies could be attributable to cross-reactivity or exposure to the same transmission vector...
  14. Cohen D, Zaide Y, Karasenty E, Schwarz M, LeDuc J, Slepon R, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to West Nile fever, sandfly fever Sicilian, and sandfly fever Naples viruses in healthy adults in Israel. Public Health Rev. 1999;27:217-30 pubmed
    ..It is suspected that some of the cases of nonspecific febrile illnesses in Israel may in fact be either WNF or SFF...
  15. Magurano F, Nicoletti L. Humoral response in Toscana virus acute neurologic disease investigated by viral-protein-specific immunoassays. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999;6:55-60 pubmed
    ..Antibodies to nonstructural proteins NSm and NSs are also identified. The results obtained raise some questions about antigenic variability and relevant neutralization epitopes of Toscana virus...
  16. Portolani M, Sabbatini A, Beretti F, Gennari W, Tamassia M, Pecorari M. Symptomatic infections by toscana virus in the Modena province in the triennium 1999-2001. New Microbiol. 2002;25:485-8 pubmed
    ..Six TOSV-infected patients had stayed for a few days in a different area of the Tuscany region before the onset of clinical manifestations so, only three cases of infections by TOSV had an autochthonous origin...
  17. Navarro J, Fernández Roldán C, Pérez Ruiz M, Sanbonmatsu S, de la Rosa M, Sanchez Seco M. [Meningitis by Toscana virus in Spain: description of 17 cases]. Med Clin (Barc). 2004;122:420-2 pubmed
    ..We aimed to analyze the clinical and epidemiological data from the first series of patients with meningitis by Toscana virus in Spain...
  18. Charrel R, Gallian P, Navarro Marí J, Nicoletti L, Papa A, Sanchez Seco M, et al. Emergence of Toscana virus in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1657-63 pubmed
    ..Despite increasing evidence of its major role in medicine as an emerging cause of CNS infections, TOSV remains an unstudied pathogen, and few physicians are aware of its potential to cause CNS infections...
  19. Sanbonmatsu Gámez S, Pérez Ruiz M, Collao X, Sanchez Seco M, Morillas Marquez F, de la Rosa Fraile M, et al. Toscana virus in Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1701-7 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate the circulation of at least 2 different lineages of TOSV in the Mediterranean basin, the Italian lineage and the Spanish lineage...
  20. Mendoza Montero J, Gámez Rueda M, Navarro Marí J, de la Rosa Fraile M, Oyonarte Gómez S. Infections due to sandfly fever virus serotype Toscana in Spain. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27:434-6 pubmed
    ..We found that the prevalence of antibodies to these viruses was 26.2%, 2.2, and 11.9%, respectively; these rates imply that TOS infections are common in Spain...
  21. Braito A, Corbisiero R, Corradini S, Marchi B, Sancasciani N, Fiorentini C, et al. Evidence of Toscana virus infections without central nervous system involvement: a serological study. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997;13:761-4 pubmed
    ....
  22. Schwarz T, Gilch S, Jager G. Aseptic meningitis caused by sandfly fever virus, serotype Toscana. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:669-71 pubmed
    ..TOS infection should be considered as a cause of acute central nervous system disorders in patients returning from areas of endemicity...
  23. Eitrem R, Niklasson B, Weiland O. Sandfly fever among Swedish tourists. Scand J Infect Dis. 1991;23:451-7 pubmed
    ..The results were reported to the local health officers and possibly due to the measures undertaken hereafter the number of sandfly fever cases diagnosed have decreased...
  24. Amaro F, Luz T, Parreira P, Ciufolini M, Marchi A, Janeiro N, et al. [Toscana virus in the Portuguese population: serosurvey and clinical cases]. Acta Med Port. 2011;24 Suppl 2:503-8 pubmed
    ..Phl.3. This can indicate the presence of more than one Toscana virus serotype circulating in Portugal and emphasizes the need for more research about this etiological agent in our country...
  25. Eitrem R, Stylianou M, Niklasson B. High prevalence rates of antibody to three sandfly fever viruses (Sicilian, Naples, and Toscana) among Cypriots. Epidemiol Infect. 1991;107:685-91 pubmed
    ..If the antibody prevalence rates found in this study reflect a history of clinical disease as described in the literature, sandfly fever poses a significant public health problem in Cyprus...
  26. Collao X, Palacios G, de Ory F, Sanbonmatsu S, Pérez Ruiz M, Navarro J, et al. Granada virus: a natural phlebovirus reassortant of the sandfly fever Naples serocomplex with low seroprevalence in humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:760-5 pubmed publisher
    ....
  27. Dionisio D, Valassina M, CIufolini M, Vivarelli A, Esperti F, Cusi M, et al. Encephalitis without meningitis due to sandfly fever virus serotype toscana. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:1241-3 pubmed
    ..Findings confirm that TOS virus may directly cause encephalitis and suggest the usefulness of DNA sequencing in investigating relationships between TOS virus molecular patterns and the spectrum of neurological involvement...
  28. Nicoletti L, CIufolini M, Verani P. Sandfly fever viruses in Italy. Arch Virol Suppl. 1996;11:41-7 pubmed
    ..Toscana virus may be present in other Mediterranean countries where sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus are present...
  29. Gori Savellini G, Di Genova G, Terrosi C, Di Bonito P, Giorgi C, Valentini M, et al. Immunization with Toscana virus N-Gc proteins protects mice against virus challenge. Virology. 2008;375:521-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the N+Gc viral antigen combination could be useful for future development of a vaccine controlling the spread of this emerging virus that could pose a new threat for humans...
  30. Gowen B, Fairman J, Dow S, Troyer R, Wong M, Jung K, et al. Prophylaxis with cationic liposome-DNA complexes protects hamsters from phleboviral disease: importance of liposomal delivery and CpG motifs. Antiviral Res. 2009;81:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest a broad T(H)1 response elicited by liposomal delivery of a diverse sequence containing CpG and non-CpG elements may be a more effective antiviral treatment than other nucleic acid based immunotherapeutics...
  31. Lieshout Krikke R, Zaaijer H, Prinsze F. The yield of temporary exclusion of blood donors, exposed to emerging infections abroad. Vox Sang. 2013;104:12-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the yield of donor deferral after travelling was evaluated, by comparing the estimated numbers of infected donors returning from various affected areas...
  32. Kuscu F, Menemenlioglu D, Oztürk D, Korukluoglu G, Uyar Y. [Acute Toscana virus infection in an anti-HIV positive patient]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2014;48:168-73 pubmed
    ..In our country where SFV is endemic, TOSV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with high fever and meningoencephalitis symptoms. ..
  33. Zehender G, Bernini F, Delogu M, Cusi M, Rezza G, Galli M, et al. Bayesian skyline plot inference of the Toscana virus epidemic: a decline in the effective number of infections over the last 30 years. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:562-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that continuous and prolonged perturbations of vector/phlebovirus interactions due to the relatively recent climate changes may have contributed to gradually reducing the viral population in endemic areas...
  34. Amaro F, Ciufolini M, Venturi G, Fiorentini C, Alves M. [Phleboviruses laboratory diagnosis (Toscana virus)]. Acta Med Port. 2007;20:341-6 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, Phlebotomus perniciosus, one of Toscana virus vectors, is widespread in Portugal...
  35. CIufolini M, Fiorentini C, Di Bonito P, Mochi S, Giorgi C. Detection of Toscana virus-specific immunoglobulins G and M by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant viral nucleoprotein. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:2010-2 pubmed
    ....
  36. Venturi G, Madeddu G, Rezza G, Ciccozzi M, Pettinato M, Cilliano M, et al. Detection of Toscana virus central nervous system infections in Sardinia Island, Italy. J Clin Virol. 2007;40:90-1 pubmed
  37. Flamm H. [Elucidation of pappataci fever by Austrian miliary physicians]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2008;120:198-208 pubmed publisher
  38. Liu W, Lu Q, Cui N, Li H, Wang L, Liu K, et al. Case-fatality ratio and effectiveness of ribavirin therapy among hospitalized patients in china who had severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:1292-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to identify the predictors of fatal outcomes and to evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral therapy in treating SFTS virus (SFTSV)-infected patients...
  39. Torun Edis C, Yağcı Çağlayık D, Uyar Y, Korukluoglu G, Ertek M. [Sandfly fever outbreak in a province at Central Anatolia, Turkey]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2010;44:431-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore sandfly fever should be considered in patients presenting with fever and arthralgia-myalgia and with a history of insect bite especially during summer months...
  40. Koçak Tufan Z, Weidmann M, Bulut C, Kinikli S, Hufert F, Dobler G, et al. Clinical and laboratory findings of a sandfly fever Turkey Virus outbreak in Ankara. J Infect. 2011;63:375-81 pubmed publisher
    ....
  41. Calamusa G, Valenti R, Vitale F, Mammina C, Romano N, Goedert J, et al. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for Toscana and Sicilian virus infection in a sample population of Sicily (Italy). J Infect. 2012;64:212-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to assess seroprevalence of and risk factors for Toscana (TOSV) and Sicilian (SFSV) virus infections in a sample of Sicilian subjects...
  42. Depaquit J, Lienard E, Verzeaux Griffon A, Ferté H, Bounamous A, Gantier J, et al. Molecular homogeneity in diverse geographical populations of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera, Psychodidae) inferred from ND4 mtDNA and ITS2 rDNA Epidemiological consequences. Infect Genet Evol. 2008;8:159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..papatasi over its distribution area have similar vectorial capacities. The limits of the distribution area of L. major are correlated with the distribution of common rodents acting as hosts of the parasites...
  43. Sakhria S, Bichaud L, Mensi M, Salez N, Dachraoui K, Thirion L, et al. Co-circulation of Toscana virus and Punique virus in northern Tunisia: a microneutralisation-based seroprevalence study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2429 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the respective involvement of TOSV and PUNV in human infections in northern Tunisia through a seroprevalence study...
  44. Di Bonito P, Bosco S, Mochi S, Accardi L, Ciufolini M, Nicoletti L, et al. Human antibody response to Toscana virus glycoproteins expressed by recombinant baculovirus. J Med Virol. 2002;68:615-9 pubmed
    ..In this system, all the sera showed a high reactivity to the N protein, but they differed in the response to the glycoproteins...
  45. Ellis S, Appenzeller G, Lee H, Mullen K, Swenness R, Pimentel G, et al. Outbreak of sandfly fever in central Iraq, September 2007. Mil Med. 2008;173:949-53 pubmed
    ..Recommendations include increased theater disease surveillance, medical training, and vector control...
  46. Anagnostou V, Papa A. Seroprevalence of Toscana virus among residents of Aegean Sea islands, Greece. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013;11:98-102 pubmed publisher
    ....
  47. Carhan A, Uyar Y, Ozkaya E, Ertek M, Dobler G, Dilcher M, et al. Characterization of a sandfly fever Sicilian virus isolated during a sandfly fever epidemic in Turkey. J Clin Virol. 2010;48:264-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Phleboviruses cause sandfly fever but isolates are rare...
  48. Jiao L, Ouyang S, Liang M, Niu F, Shaw N, Wu W, et al. Structure of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein in complex with suramin reveals therapeutic potential. J Virol. 2013;87:6829-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory effect of Suramin on SFTSV replication was confirmed in Vero cells. Therefore, a common Suramin-based therapeutic approach targeting SFTSV-N and its homologs could be developed for containing phleboviral outbreaks...
  49. Silvas J, Aguilar P. The Emergence of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:992-996 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we report the most current findings in SFTS virus research...
  50. Rassi Y, Abai M, Oshaghi M, Javadian E, Sanei A, Rafidzadeh S, et al. First detection of Leishmania infantum in Phlebotomus kandelakii using molecular methods in north-eastern Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2012;18:387-92 pubmed
    ..infantum. This is the first finding of natural infection of P. kandelakii by L. infantum in this region suggesting P. kandelakii may be the vector of L. infantum in the area although it is the second most prevalent phlebotomine species...
  51. Bichaud L, Piarroux R, Izri A, Ninove L, Mary C, De Lamballerie X, et al. Low seroprevalence of sandfly fever Sicilian virus antibodies in humans, Marseille, France. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1189-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The low seroprevalence rate observed in this study suggests that SFSV is not likely to be of major medical importance in the Marseille area...
  52. McClain D, Summers P, Pratt W, Davis K, Jennings G. Experimental infection of nonhuman primates with sandfly fever virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997;56:554-60 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the preclinical data provide supportive evidence for safe parenteral administration of a Sicilian strain of sandfly fever virus inoculum to humans as a challenge model for sandfly fever disease...
  53. Pauli C, Schwarz T, Meyer C, Jager G. [Neurological symptoms after an infection by the sandfly fever virus]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1995;120:1468-72 pubmed
    ..The symptoms improved after 7 days, except for the headache which persisted another 5 days. Serology demonstrated an acute infection by SF virus, serotype Sicilian...
  54. Konstantinou G, Papa A, Antoniadis A. Sandfly-fever outbreak in Cyprus: are phleboviruses still a health problem?. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2007;5:239-42 pubmed
    ..Between May and September of 2002, 256 soldiers of the Greek Army Forces in Cyprus developed a 3-day self-limited febrile illness. All clinical symptoms and laboratory findings are described...
  55. Di Nicuolo G, Pagliano P, Battisti S, Starace M, Mininni V, Attanasio V, et al. Toscana virus central nervous system infections in southern Italy. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:6186-8 pubmed
    ..The central nervous system infections were associated with young adults and with a substantially benign clinical course. Presenting features and CSF findings are also discussed in the present report...
  56. Alkan C, Bichaud L, de Lamballerie X, Alten B, Gould E, Charrel R. Sandfly-borne phleboviruses of Eurasia and Africa: epidemiology, genetic diversity, geographic range, control measures. Antiviral Res. 2013;100:54-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the need to conduct studies aimed at developing new antiviral drugs and vaccines. ..
  57. Soldateschi D, dal Maso G, Valassina M, Santini L, Bianchi S, Cusi M. Laboratory diagnosis of Toscana virus infection by enzyme immunoassay with recombinant viral nucleoprotein. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:649-52 pubmed
    ..6%, respectively, for IgG detection. Thus, rEIA appears to be a simple and reliable laboratory test for the diagnosis of acute TOSV infection and for the assessment of immune status...
  58. Park S, Han M, Yun S, Park C, Lee W, Ryou J. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, South Korea, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1880-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Environmental temperature probably affected the monthly and regional distribution of case-patients within the country. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates from Korea were closely related to isolates from China and Japan. ..
  59. Ranaldi R, Goteri G, Biagetti S, Cusi M, Rossini S. Histological description of the lymphadenopathy related to Toscana virus infection. Report of a case. Pathol Res Pract. 2011;207:197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrated the presence of viral protein and viral RNA in the lymph node tissue...
  60. Hukic M, Salimović Besić I. Sandfly - Pappataci fever in Bosnia and Herzegovina: the new-old disease. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2009;9:39-43 pubmed
    ..It would be necessary to make biological, epidemiological and clinical research on the TOSV and related phleboviruses to elucidate the problem of SFV in Bosnia and Herzegovina...
  61. Schwarz T, Gilch S, Schätzl H. A recombinant Toscana virus nucleoprotein in a diagnostic immunoblot test system. Res Virol. 1998;149:413-8 pubmed
    ..No cross-reactivity was detected. The rTOS N protein is useful as an antigen for immunoblot assays, and will enable more laboratories to perform TOS antibody diagnosis...
  62. Yun S, Lee W, Ryou J, Yang S, Park S, Roh J, et al. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in ticks collected from humans, South Korea, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1358-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks have been considered the SFTSV vector. However, we detected the virus in H. longicornis, Amblyomma testudinarium, and Ixodes nipponensis ticks, indicating additional potential SFTSV vectors. ..